Black Cohosh Insights: 50 Common Queries Clarified

In the realm of natural remedies and herbal supplements, Black Cohosh has gained recognition for its potential health benefits. As a botanical extract often sought after for its reputed capacity to address various ailments, it’s only natural for questions and curiosities to arise. This article delves into the world of Black Cohosh to provide insights into frequently asked questions, making it a valuable resource for those looking to understand this botanical remedy in-depth.

Black Cohosh: 50 Questions & Answers

What is Black Cohosh?

Black Cohosh is a perennial herb native to North America, primarily found in the eastern and central parts of the United States and Canada. It is known for its tall spikes of white flowers and distinctive feathery leaves. The plant has a long history of traditional medicinal use among Native American tribes, particularly for women’s health concerns.

What is the scientific name of Black Cohosh?

The scientific name of Black Cohosh is Actaea racemosa, although it was previously classified as Cimicifuga racemosa. This botanical name is crucial for accurate identification and reference in scientific literature.

Does Black Cohosh have other common names?

Black Cohosh goes by several common names, reflecting its regional and historical usage. Some of the most common alternative names include Black Snake Root, Bugbane, and Rattleweed. These names have been used by different cultures and communities to refer to the plant.

What is Black Cohosh’s traditional and modern medicinal use?

Traditionally, Black Cohosh has been employed by Native Americans to alleviate various health issues, particularly those related to women’s reproductive health. It was used to manage menstrual discomfort, menopausal symptoms, and childbirth-related concerns. In modern herbal medicine and dietary supplements, Black Cohosh is still recognized for its potential to relieve menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, and mood swings. However, its effectiveness can vary among individuals.

What nutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, etc.) does Black Cohosh contain?

Black Cohosh contains a variety of phytochemicals, including triterpene glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. While it is not particularly rich in vitamins or minerals, its potential health benefits are often attributed to these bioactive compounds. Some of the key phytochemicals found in Black Cohosh are believed to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and estrogenic effects, which contribute to its traditional and modern medicinal use. Additionally, it is considered a source of antioxidants, which can help protect cells from oxidative stress.

Find the Best Black Cohosh Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any potential side effects associated with Black Cohosh?

Black Cohosh is generally considered safe for short-term use, but some individuals may experience mild side effects. These can include digestive issues like stomach upset, nausea, or diarrhea. Additionally, some people might develop headaches, dizziness, or a feeling of heaviness in the legs. Very rarely, liver problems have been reported, but the link between Black Cohosh and liver issues remains inconclusive.

The recommended dosage of Black Cohosh can vary depending on the specific product and individual needs. Typically, the suggested dose for standardized Black Cohosh extract is around 20-40 milligrams per day, taken in divided doses. However, it’s crucial to follow the instructions on the product label or consult with a healthcare professional for personalized guidance.

Is Black Cohosh safe for pregnant or breastfeeding women?

Black Cohosh is not recommended for use during pregnancy, as it may stimulate uterine contractions and potentially lead to complications. Likewise, breastfeeding women should exercise caution, as there is limited research on the safety of Black Cohosh during lactation. It’s advisable for pregnant and breastfeeding women to consult with a healthcare provider before using Black Cohosh.

Can children safely consume Black Cohosh?

Black Cohosh is generally intended for adult use, and its safety for children has not been well studied. It’s essential to exercise caution and avoid giving Black Cohosh to children unless specifically directed by a healthcare professional.

How should Black Cohosh be prepared or consumed (e.g., tea, tincture, capsules, tablets)?

Black Cohosh is available in various forms, including capsules, tablets, tinctures, and teas. The choice of preparation often depends on personal preference and the desired effect. Capsules and tablets provide standardized doses and are convenient for precise dosing. Tinctures are liquid extracts that can be mixed with water or other liquids for consumption. Black Cohosh tea is also an option, made by steeping the root or rhizome in hot water. It’s essential to follow the recommended dosage instructions provided on the product label or as advised by a healthcare professional to ensure safe and effective use.

Are there any contraindications or health conditions that may be worsened by Black Cohosh?

Black Cohosh is generally considered safe for most people when used as directed. However, individuals with certain health conditions should exercise caution or avoid it altogether. People with liver disorders or a history of liver problems should consult a healthcare professional before using Black Cohosh, as there have been rare reports of liver-related issues associated with its use. Additionally, pregnant or breastfeeding women, as well as individuals with hormone-sensitive conditions like breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or uterine cancer, should also consult their healthcare provider before using Black Cohosh due to its potential hormonal effects.

Where is Black Cohosh usually sourced or cultivated?

Black Cohosh primarily grows in the eastern regions of North America, particularly in the United States and Canada. It’s commonly found in woodlands and forested areas. Historically, Native American tribes have used the plant for various medicinal purposes, and today it’s cultivated in some parts of the world for commercial use. The rhizomes and roots of the Black Cohosh plant are typically harvested for medicinal preparations.

Yes, Black Cohosh is legal to possess and use in the United States. It is considered a dietary supplement, and as such, it falls under the regulatory framework of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994. This means that it can be sold over the counter without a prescription. However, it’s essential to purchase Black Cohosh products from reputable sources to ensure quality and safety.

Are there any known allergens in Black Cohosh?

While Black Cohosh is generally safe for most people, there have been rare reports of allergic reactions in some individuals. Symptoms of an allergic reaction may include skin rashes, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. If you suspect an allergy to Black Cohosh, discontinue use and seek medical attention promptly.

May Black Cohosh supplements contain contaminants like pesticides or heavy metals?

Like any agricultural product, Black Cohosh supplements may contain contaminants, including pesticides and heavy metals, if not sourced and processed properly. To minimize the risk of contaminants, it’s crucial to purchase Black Cohosh supplements from reputable and trusted manufacturers who adhere to quality control standards. Independent testing and certification by organizations like the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) can provide assurance of product quality and safety. Additionally, consulting with a healthcare professional before starting any supplement regimen is advisable to ensure it’s appropriate for your specific health needs.

Are there any known long-term effects of using Black Cohosh?

Long-term use of Black Cohosh has been a subject of concern, primarily due to its potential impact on the liver. Some studies have suggested a possible association between Black Cohosh and rare cases of liver damage, although causality remains inconclusive. It’s essential to monitor liver function if you use Black Cohosh for an extended period, especially if you experience symptoms like jaundice, abdominal pain, or dark urine, which could indicate liver issues. Consult with a healthcare professional for regular check-ups if you plan on using Black Cohosh long-term.

Do Black Cohosh supplements have a specific shelf life or expiration date?

Yes, like most supplements, Black Cohosh products typically come with a specific shelf life or expiration date. This date is provided to ensure the potency and safety of the product. It’s important to adhere to the manufacturer’s guidelines regarding storage and expiration dates. Using Black Cohosh supplements after their expiration date may result in reduced effectiveness, and it’s advisable to replace them to ensure you are getting the desired benefits.

What is the best time of day to take Black Cohosh?

There isn’t a specific time of day that is universally recommended for taking Black Cohosh. However, many individuals prefer taking it in the morning with breakfast or during the day to minimize the potential for gastrointestinal discomfort that can occur with some supplements. The choice of timing often depends on personal preference and what works best for your daily routine. It’s essential to follow the dosage instructions provided on the product label or as directed by your healthcare provider for optimal results.

Should Black Cohosh pills be taken with food or on an empty stomach?

Taking Black Cohosh supplements with food is generally recommended, as it can help reduce the likelihood of stomach upset or digestive discomfort. However, this can vary from person to person, and some individuals may tolerate it well on an empty stomach. If you have a sensitive stomach or are unsure, it’s advisable to start by taking it with a meal or a light snack. Pay attention to your body’s response, and if you experience any adverse effects, consider adjusting your intake with food.

Are there any dietary restrictions or guidelines while using Black Cohosh?

There are no specific dietary restrictions associated with Black Cohosh use. However, maintaining a balanced and healthy diet can contribute to your overall well-being and complement the potential benefits of Black Cohosh. It’s always a good practice to consult with a healthcare provider or herbalist, especially if you have underlying health conditions or are taking other medications, to ensure that there are no potential interactions or dietary considerations specific to your individual health needs.

The recommended duration of use for Black Cohosh can vary depending on individual needs and the specific health issue you are addressing. In general, it is advisable to use Black Cohosh for no more than six months continuously. After this period, it’s recommended to take a break or consult a healthcare professional for further guidance.

Is it advisable to consult a healthcare professional before using Black Cohosh?

Yes, it is advisable to consult a healthcare professional before using Black Cohosh, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, or have underlying health conditions. This herb can interact with certain medications and may not be suitable for everyone. Consulting a healthcare expert will help ensure its safe and effective use in your specific case.

Are there any special precautions for storing Black Cohosh supplements?

To maintain the potency and freshness of Black Cohosh supplements, it’s important to store them properly. Keep the supplements in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight and moisture. Ensure the container is tightly sealed to prevent air and humidity from degrading the product. Following these storage precautions will help preserve the quality of your Black Cohosh supplements.

How does Black Cohosh taste, and can it be mixed with other herbs or foods for palatability?

Black Cohosh has a slightly bitter and earthy taste. While some people may find it tolerable, others may prefer to mix it with other herbs or foods to improve palatability. You can consider combining it with herbal teas or mixing it into smoothies to mask the taste. Experiment with different combinations to find what works best for your palate.

What other supplements work well together with Black Cohosh?

Black Cohosh is a popular herbal supplement known for its potential benefits in managing symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, mood swings, and sleep disturbances. When considering combining Black Cohosh with other supplements, it’s important to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized guidance. However, some supplements that are often used in conjunction with Black Cohosh include:

  • Soy Isoflavones: Soy isoflavones, found in soy products and supplements, may complement Black Cohosh in managing menopausal symptoms. They contain phytoestrogens, which can help balance hormonal changes.
  • Evening Primrose Oil: Evening Primrose oil contains gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), which can potentially ease symptoms like breast tenderness and mood swings during menopause.
  • Chasteberry (Vitex Agnus-Castus): Chasteberry (Vitex Berry) is used to regulate hormone imbalances and may help alleviate symptoms like irregular periods, mood swings, and breast tenderness associated with menopause.
  • Calcium and Vitamin D: Menopausal women are at an increased risk of bone density loss. Combining Black Cohosh with calcium and vitamin D supplements can help support bone health.
  • Maca Root: Maca is an adaptogenic herb that may enhance overall energy, stamina, and mood. It can be combined with Black Cohosh for a more comprehensive approach to menopausal well-being.
  • Magnesium: Magnesium supplements can help manage muscle cramps and support cardiovascular health, which can be important during menopause.
  • B Vitamins: B vitamins, particularly B6 and B12, may aid in reducing menopausal symptoms like mood swings and fatigue.
  • St. John’s Wort: This herb called St. John’s Wort is known for its potential mood-balancing effects, which can be beneficial for managing mood swings and irritability during menopause.
  • Dong Quai (Angelica sinensis): Dong Quai is often used alongside Black Cohosh to support hormonal balance and relieve menopausal symptoms. Together, they may help alleviate hot flashes, mood swings, and menstrual irregularities.
  • Red Clover: Red Clover contains isoflavones, which are phytoestrogens that may help reduce hot flashes and support overall hormonal health. Combining Red Clover with Black Cohosh can be beneficial for managing menopausal symptoms.
  • Sage: Sage (Salvia) supplements or tea can be used alongside Black Cohosh to help reduce excessive sweating and hot flashes.
  • Ginseng (Panax ginseng): Ginseng is an adaptogenic herb that may help improve energy levels and overall well-being. It can complement Black Cohosh, especially if fatigue is a concern.
  • Valerian Root: If you’re struggling with sleep disturbances during menopause, Valerian root may be useful when taken alongside Black Cohosh to promote better sleep quality.
  • Ashwagandha: This adaptogenic herb Ashwagandha may help manage stress and improve overall resilience during menopause, making it a potential complement to Black Cohosh.

Is there any scientific research or clinical evidence supporting Black Cohosh’s effectiveness?

Yes, scientific research and clinical studies have examined the effectiveness of Black Cohosh, particularly in addressing menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, mood swings, and sleep disturbances. While some studies suggest positive results, the evidence is not entirely conclusive, and more research is ongoing to determine its precise mechanisms and long-term effects.

Find the Best Black Cohosh Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any age restrictions for using Black Cohosh (e.g., suitable for the elderly)?

Black Cohosh is generally considered safe for most age groups, including the elderly. However, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new herbal remedy, especially if you have pre-existing medical conditions or are taking medications that might interact with it.

Does Black Cohosh require a specific preparation method, such as decoction or infusion?

Black Cohosh can be prepared in various ways, including decoctions and infusions. The choice of preparation method often depends on personal preference and the desired application. Decoctions involve simmering the plant’s root or rhizome in water, while infusions entail steeping the dried herb in hot water. The method you choose can affect the concentration and potency of the herbal extract.

Can Black Cohosh be used topically (externally) in addition to internal consumption?

Yes, Black Cohosh can be used topically. Some individuals use it externally in the form of creams, lotions, or salves for relieving muscle pain, joint discomfort, or skin conditions. However, it’s crucial to ensure that any topical product you use is formulated specifically for external use and follows recommended guidelines.

Are there any known symptoms of overdose or excessive use of Black Cohosh?

Excessive use of Black Cohosh may lead to adverse effects. Some reported symptoms of overdose or prolonged use include dizziness, nausea, headaches, and stomach discomfort. It’s essential to follow dosing recommendations carefully and consult a healthcare professional if you experience any unusual or severe side effects. As with any herbal remedy, moderation and guidance from a healthcare provider are essential to ensure safe usage.

What is Black Cohosh’s mode of action within the body?

Black Cohosh, scientifically known as Actaea racemosa, primarily exerts its mode of action within the body by interacting with the endocrine system, particularly estrogen receptors. This herb contains phytochemicals called triterpene glycosides, such as actein and cimicifugoside, which are believed to have an estrogenic effect when binding to these receptors. This interaction can help alleviate menopausal symptoms by providing some estrogen-like activity when natural estrogen levels decline. However, it’s essential to note that the mechanism is not fully understood, and research on Black Cohosh is ongoing to gain a more comprehensive understanding of its actions.

Are there any known synergistic effects when Black Cohosh is combined with specific nutrients?

There is limited research regarding synergistic effects when combining Black Cohosh with specific nutrients or herbs. Some studies suggest potential benefits when combined with other botanicals like St. John’s Wort or soy isoflavones, which may enhance its effectiveness in managing menopausal symptoms. However, more research is needed to establish concrete recommendations for such combinations. It’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before combining Black Cohosh with other supplements or herbs to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Does Black Cohosh have a distinct aroma or essential oil that may have therapeutic benefits?

Black Cohosh does not have a distinct aroma or essential oil that is commonly associated with therapeutic benefits. Unlike some aromatic herbs, its medicinal properties are primarily attributed to its phytochemical composition and interaction with the body’s hormonal system.

Are there any cultural or historical uses of Black Cohosh that should be considered?

Black Cohosh has a rich history of traditional use among Native American communities and early American settlers. Indigenous peoples used it for various purposes, including easing menstrual discomfort, labor pains, and menopausal symptoms. Early European settlers adopted these practices and also used Black Cohosh to alleviate various women’s health issues. It’s essential to respect and acknowledge this historical use when considering modern applications of the herb.

Does Black Cohosh have any spiritual or ceremonial significance in certain traditions?

In some Native American traditions, Black Cohosh does hold spiritual and ceremonial significance. It has been used in rituals and as a remedy for various ailments, reflecting its importance in their cultural heritage. However, specific ceremonial practices and beliefs related to Black Cohosh can vary among different Indigenous communities and should be approached with sensitivity and respect.

Are there any variations in Black Cohosh’s potency based on its geographic origin?

Yes, there can be variations in the potency of Black Cohosh based on its geographic origin. Factors like soil composition, climate, and growing conditions can influence the concentration of active compounds in the plant. Black Cohosh sourced from different regions may contain varying levels of beneficial constituents, potentially affecting its effectiveness.

Does Black Cohosh have a known effect on specific organs or body systems?

Black Cohosh primarily impacts the reproductive and hormonal systems. It is well-known for its use in managing menopausal symptoms, as it can help regulate hormonal fluctuations, particularly estrogen. However, it doesn’t have significant effects on other organs or body systems.

Are there any known interactions of Black Cohosh with commonly prescribed medications?

Black Cohosh may interact with certain medications. It’s important to exercise caution when using it alongside drugs that affect the liver or hormonal balance, such as hormone replacement therapies, birth control pills, or medications for liver conditions. Consult with a healthcare professional to assess potential interactions.

What are the potential benefits and risks of long-term or chronic use of Black Cohosh?

The potential benefits of long-term or chronic use of Black Cohosh include sustained relief from menopausal symptoms like hot flashes, mood swings, and sleep disturbances. However, extended use should be monitored by a healthcare provider, as there may be risks associated with prolonged hormone modulation. Some concerns include liver toxicity and the need for periodic evaluation.

Is it advisable to cycle on and off Black Cohosh to prevent tolerance or dependence?

There is limited information on tolerance or dependence with Black Cohosh. However, it’s generally advisable to use it as directed and consult with a healthcare provider if you plan to use it for an extended period. Cycling on and off Black Cohosh may be considered as a precautionary measure, but individual responses can vary, so personalized guidance from a healthcare professional is recommended.

Are there any precautions regarding driving or operating machinery while using Black Cohosh?

While Black Cohosh is generally considered safe for most individuals, it’s essential to be aware of potential side effects that could affect your ability to drive or operate machinery. Some people may experience dizziness, headache, or gastrointestinal discomfort when taking Black Cohosh. If you encounter any of these symptoms, it’s advisable to avoid tasks that require mental alertness or coordination until you understand how your body responds to the herb. Always start with a lower dose and gradually increase it to minimize the risk of side effects.

There are no specific dietary restrictions associated with Black Cohosh use. However, maintaining a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle can enhance the effectiveness of this herbal supplement. Staying hydrated and getting regular exercise can support overall well-being. Additionally, reducing alcohol and caffeine intake may help alleviate menopausal symptoms, for which Black Cohosh is often used. Consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice on dietary and lifestyle changes while using Black Cohosh.

Does Black Cohosh have any specific recommendations for addressing common side effects?

To address common side effects like gastrointestinal discomfort or headaches associated with Black Cohosh use, several strategies can be helpful. First, try taking the supplement with food to minimize stomach upset. If headaches occur, staying well-hydrated and managing stress can be beneficial. If side effects persist or worsen, consult your healthcare provider, who may adjust the dosage or recommend alternative remedies.

Are there any known variations or subspecies of Black Cohosh with different properties?

Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa) primarily refers to the species commonly used for medicinal purposes. However, within this species, there can be variations in the concentration of active compounds. Different geographical regions and growing conditions can influence these variations. While some subspecies or varieties exist, their properties and medicinal effects are often similar. It’s crucial to source Black Cohosh from reputable suppliers to ensure product quality and consistency.

Does Black Cohosh have any documented cases of misuse or abuse?

Black Cohosh is generally safe when used as recommended, but there have been isolated reports of misuse or adverse reactions. These cases often involve excessive doses or prolonged use beyond recommended guidelines. Some individuals may mistakenly believe that higher doses will lead to faster relief from menopausal symptoms. To avoid misuse, always follow the dosage instructions on the product label or the guidance of a healthcare professional. If you experience any unusual symptoms or discomfort while using Black Cohosh, seek medical advice promptly.

Is Black Cohosh regulated or approved for medicinal use in the United States?

Yes, Black Cohosh is regulated as a dietary supplement by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). However, it’s important to note that Black Cohosh is not approved as a drug for the treatment of any specific medical conditions. It is available over-the-counter as a dietary supplement and is commonly used for menopausal symptoms and other health concerns.

Are there any known interactions of Black Cohosh when combined with other medicinal herbs?

Black Cohosh may interact with certain medicinal herbs and medications. It is advisable to exercise caution when combining it with other herbs or drugs that affect hormones, blood clotting, or liver function. Some potential interactions may occur with medications like blood thinners, hormone replacement therapy, or drugs that affect liver enzymes. Consultation with a healthcare professional is recommended to ensure safe use, especially if you are taking multiple herbal supplements or prescription medications.

How does Black Cohosh’s preparation or dosage change for acute versus chronic conditions?

The preparation and dosage of Black Cohosh can vary depending on the specific condition and individual needs. For acute conditions like hot flashes or menopausal symptoms, a typical dose may range from 20 to 40 mg of standardized extract daily. However, for chronic conditions, especially when used long-term, lower doses of around 20 mg per day may be more appropriate. It’s crucial to follow the instructions on the product label or seek guidance from a healthcare provider for personalized recommendations.

Find the Best Black Cohosh Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any known withdrawal symptoms when discontinuing the use of Black Cohosh?

There are no well-documented withdrawal symptoms associated with discontinuing the use of Black Cohosh. However, it’s essential to gradually reduce the dosage if you’ve been taking it regularly for an extended period. Abruptly stopping any supplement or medication can lead to potential discomfort or a resurgence of symptoms. Consult with your healthcare provider for guidance on tapering off Black Cohosh if you decide to discontinue its use.

What are the best supplement brands of Black Cohosh?

Selecting a reputable brand for Black Cohosh supplements is crucial to ensure product quality and safety. Some well-known brands with a history of producing high-quality herbal supplements include Nature’s Way, Gaia Herbs, NOW Foods, and Herb Pharm. However, individual preferences and responses to specific brands can vary. It’s advisable to research and read customer reviews and consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most suitable brand and formulation for your specific needs.

Article References & Sources

At AncientHerbsWisdom, our content relies on reputable sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to substantiate the information presented in our articles. Our primary objective is to ensure that our content is thoroughly fact-checked, maintaining a commitment to accuracy, reliability, and trustworthiness.

  1. Shams, T., Setia, M. S., Hemmings, R., McCusker, J., Sewitch, M., & Ciampi, A. (2010, February). Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: A meta-analysis. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 16(1), 36-44
  2. Castelo-Branco C, Gambacciani M, Cano A, Minkin MJ, Rachoń D, Ruan X, Beer AM, Schnitker J, Henneicke-von Zepelin HH, Pickartz SReview & meta-analysis: isopropanolic black cohosh extract iCR for menopausal symptoms – an update on the evidence.Climacteric.(2021-Apr)
  3. Black cohosh [Fact sheet for health professionals]. (2017, March 3)
  4. Wobser RW, Takov VBlack CohoshStatPearls.(2023-01)
  5. Predny et al.Black cohosh (*Actaea racemosa*): an annotated bibliographyGen. Tech. Rep. SRS–97. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 99 p..(2006)
  6. Jiang K, Jin Y, Huang L, Feng S, Hou X, Du B, Zheng J, Li LBlack cohosh improves objective sleep in postmenopausal women with sleep disturbance.Climacteric.(2015)
  7. Nonhormonal management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: 2015 position statement of the North American Menopause Society [Abstract]. (2015, November). Menopause, 22(11), 1155-72
  8. Jacobson JS, Troxel AB, Evans J, Klaus L, Vahdat L, Kinne D, Lo KM, Moore A, Rosenman PJ, Kaufman EL, Neugut AI, Grann VRRandomized trial of black cohosh for the treatment of hot flashes among women with a history of breast cancerJ Clin Oncol.(2001 May 15)
  9. Sievert LLSubjective and objective measures of hot flashes.Am J Hum Biol.(2013)
  10. Wen-pei Bai, Shu-yu Wang, Jian-li Liu, Li Geng, Li-na Hu, Zhong-lan Zhang, Shu-ling Chen, Shu-rong ZhengEfficacy and safety of remifemin compared to tibolone for controlling of perimenopausal symptomsZhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi.(2009 Aug)
  11. Leach, M., & Moore, V. (2012, September). Black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 9(9)
  12. Shams T, Setia MS, Hemmings R, McCusker J, Sewitch M, Ciampi AEfficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: a meta-analysisAltern Ther Health Med.(2010 Jan-Feb)
  13. Smith-Roe SL, Swartz CD, Shepard KG, Bryce SM, Dertinger SD, Waidyanatha S, Kissling GE, Auerbach SS, Witt KLBlack cohosh extracts and powders induce micronuclei, a biomarker of genetic damage, in human cells.Environ Mol Mutagen.(2018-Jun)
  14. Gass, M. (2012, October 31). Supplement safety: Black cohosh & menopausal symptoms
  15. Reame NE, Lukacs JL, Padmanabhan V, Eyvazzadeh AD, Smith YR, Zubieta JKBlack cohosh has central opioid activity in postmenopausal women: evidence from naloxone blockade and positron emission tomography neuroimaging.Menopause.(2008)
  16. Ruhlen RL, Sun GY, Sauter ERBlack Cohosh: Insights into its Mechanism(s) of Action.Integr Med Insights.(2008)
  17. Beer, A. M., Osmers, R., Schnitker, J., Bai, W., Mueck, A. O., & Meden, H. (2013, September 2). Efficacy of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) medicines for treatment of menopausal symptoms – comments on major statements of the Cochrane Collaboration report 2012 “black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms (review)” [Abstract]. Gynecological Endocrinology, 29(12), 1022-1025
  18. Bodinet C, Freudenstein JInfluence of Cimicifuga racemosa on the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells.Breast Cancer Res Treat.(2002-Nov)
  19. Community herbal monograph on Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) nutt., rhizoma. (2010, November 25)
  20. Seidlova-Wuttke D, Hesse O, Jarry H, Christoffel V, Spengler B, Becker T, Wuttke WEvidence for selective estrogen receptor modulator activity in a black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract: comparison with estradiol-17beta.Eur J Endocrinol.(2003-Oct)
  21. Michael Bebenek, Wolfgang Kemmler, Simon von Stengel, Klaus Engelke, Willi A KalenderEffect of exercise and Cimicifuga racemosa (CR BNO 1055) on bone mineral density, 10-year coronary heart disease risk, and menopausal complaints: the randomized controlled Training and Cimicifuga racemosa Erlangen (TRACE) studyMenopause.(2010 Jul)
  22. Zhang, J., Bai, W., Wang, W., Jiang, H., Jin, B., Liu, Y., … Qin, L. (2017, April 27). Mechanisms underlying alterations in norepinephrine levels in the locus coeruleus of ovariectomized rats: Modulation by estradiol valerate and black cohosh [Abstract]. Neuroscience
  23. Foster,SBlack Cohosh: A Literature ReviewHerbalGram: The Journal of the American Botanical Council.(1999)
  24. Nappi RE, Malavasi B, Brundu B, Facchinetti FEfficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric complaints: a randomized study versus low-dose transdermal estradiol.Gynecol Endocrinol.(2005-Jan)

Valuable Resources