Cloves: Answering 50 Burning Questions About This Aromatic Spice

Cloves, with their warm, fragrant allure, have been a staple in kitchens, traditional medicine, and cultural practices worldwide for centuries. In this comprehensive guide, we delve into the depths of cloves, exploring their history, culinary uses, health benefits, and much more. From the origins of this spice to its role in ancient remedies, culinary masterpieces, and modern-day applications, discover everything you’ve ever wondered about cloves. Get ready to unearth the secrets, myths, and practical insights surrounding this tiny yet impactful spice.

Cloves: 50 Questions & Answers

What are Cloves?

Cloves are aromatic flower buds commonly used as a spice in cuisines globally. They originate from the clove tree, scientifically known as Syzygium aromaticum, native to Indonesia’s Maluku Islands. These dried flower buds possess a strong, pungent flavor and are highly prized in culinary practices for their warm, sweet taste. Beyond their culinary significance, cloves have a rich history of medicinal use, valued for their potential health benefits. They contain compounds like eugenol, known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, often used in traditional medicine for oral health and digestive issues.

What is the scientific name of Cloves?

The scientific name of cloves, Syzygium aromaticum, highlights their belonging to the Myrtaceae family and signifies their aromatic nature.

Do Cloves have other common names?

Cloves are also known by various common names in different cultures and languages. In some regions, cloves are referred to as “clavos de olor” in Spanish, “laung” in Hindi, or “ding xiang” in Chinese. These alternate names reflect their widespread use and recognition across diverse cultural and culinary landscapes, showcasing their versatility beyond just a singular identity.

What is Cloves’ traditional and modern medicinal use?

Cloves have a rich history in traditional medicine, revered for their analgesic and antiseptic properties. In traditional practices, they’ve been used to alleviate dental pain, gastrointestinal issues, and respiratory ailments. They’ve been a go-to remedy for toothaches and sore throats due to their eugenol content, a natural anesthetic. In modern times, cloves continue to be valued for their potential as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial agent. They’re incorporated into various forms like essential oils, teas, or topical applications for their medicinal benefits.

What nutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, etc.) do Cloves contain?

Cloves are a nutritional powerhouse, packing several essential nutrients. They’re a good source of vitamins like vitamin K and vitamin C, offering antioxidant properties that combat oxidative stress. Moreover, they contain minerals such as manganese, providing support for bone health and metabolism. The high antioxidant content in cloves contributes to their potential health benefits, aiding in overall well-being.

Find the Best Cloves Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any potential side effects associated with Cloves?

While generally safe, excessive consumption of cloves might lead to potential side effects. In some cases, cloves can cause allergic reactions, gastrointestinal discomfort, or skin irritation. Additionally, due to their potent nature, consuming large quantities may result in blood-thinning effects due to their eugenol content. Moderation is key to avoiding adverse reactions.

The recommended dosage for cloves varies depending on the form of consumption. For instance, when using ground cloves or clove oil, a typical dosage ranges from 0.5 to 1 gram daily for adults. However, it’s advisable to start with smaller amounts to assess individual tolerance and potential reactions.

Are Cloves safe for pregnant or breastfeeding women?

Pregnant or breastfeeding women should exercise caution when consuming cloves. While there’s limited research on their specific effects during pregnancy, it’s suggested to avoid excessive intake as it may cause uterine contractions. Moderate culinary use might generally be considered safe, but consulting a healthcare professional is advisable for individualized guidance.

Can children safely consume Cloves?

Children can safely consume cloves in moderate amounts, typically included in their diet or food. However, using large amounts or concentrated forms like essential oils isn’t advisable due to potential adverse effects such as allergic reactions or digestive issues.

How should Cloves be prepared or consumed (e.g., tea, tincture, capsules, tablets)?

Cloves can be consumed in various ways. They are commonly used in cooking, especially in spice mixes, and teas, or as a flavoring agent in dishes. Additionally, cloves can be made into teas, and tinctures, or used in capsule or tablet forms for medicinal purposes.

Are there any contraindications or health conditions that Cloves may worsen?

While cloves are generally safe when used in culinary amounts, individuals with bleeding disorders or those taking blood-thinning medications should use caution due to cloves’ potential anticoagulant properties. Those with gastrointestinal conditions like ulcers might also experience irritation from high doses of cloves.

Where are Cloves usually sourced or cultivated?

Cloves are predominantly sourced from Indonesia, Madagascar, Zanzibar, and Sri Lanka. They grow in tropical climates and are derived from the dried flower buds of the clove tree (Syzygium aromaticum).

In the United States, cloves are legal to possess and use. They are readily available in various forms in grocery stores, health food stores, and online retailers. However, regulations might apply to specific forms or concentrations, especially in essential oil variations, so it’s essential to check guidelines and usage recommendations.

Are there any known allergens in Cloves?

Cloves themselves aren’t common allergens, but some individuals may experience allergic reactions. Allergies to cloves are relatively rare, but they can manifest as skin rashes, itching, or respiratory symptoms in sensitive individuals. Cross-reactivity with other spices or plants in the same botanical family might trigger allergic responses in some cases.

May Cloves supplements contain contaminants like pesticides or heavy metals?

Contaminants in Cloves supplements are possible but largely depend on the sourcing and manufacturing process. There’s a risk of pesticides or heavy metals if the cloves are grown in areas with high environmental pollution or if there’s insufficient quality control during production. Choosing supplements from reputable brands that undergo rigorous testing can minimize this risk.

Are there any known long-term effects of using Cloves?

The long-term effects of cloves are not extensively studied, but excessive consumption may potentially lead to issues. Prolonged high doses of cloves or clove oil might cause mouth or throat irritation, upset stomach, or, in rare cases, liver damage. Moderation is key to avoiding adverse effects over extended periods.

Do Cloves supplements have a specific shelf life or expiration date?

Clove supplements typically have a shelf life indicated on the packaging. Proper storage, away from moisture and sunlight, helps maintain their potency. The shelf life varies based on formulation and packaging, but generally, they remain potent for about 1-3 years if stored correctly.

What is the best time of day to take Cloves?

There isn’t a specific ‘best’ time, but incorporating cloves into meals or taking supplements with food may aid digestion. Some find it beneficial to consume them before meals for potential digestive benefits. Personal tolerance and desired effects should also be considered when determining the ideal time for consumption.

Should Cloves pills be taken with food or on an empty stomach?

Clove pills can be taken either with food or on an empty stomach, depending on personal preference. However, some individuals might find that taking them with a meal helps prevent potential stomach irritation or discomfort.

Are there any dietary restrictions or guidelines while using Cloves?

While using Cloves, it’s wise to maintain a balanced diet and not specifically restrict certain foods unless advised by a healthcare professional. However, individuals with specific allergies or sensitivities to spices should exercise caution and monitor their body’s response.

The recommended duration of using Cloves typically varies based on the reason for usage and individual health conditions. Short-term use for managing digestive issues or oral health is common, but extended or regular use might require consultation with a healthcare provider.

Is it advisable to consult a healthcare professional before using Cloves?

Consulting a healthcare professional before using Cloves is advisable, especially for individuals with existing medical conditions, pregnant or breastfeeding women, or those taking other medications. This precaution helps ensure there are no potential interactions or adverse effects.

Are there any special precautions for storing Cloves supplements?

Storing Cloves supplements requires keeping them in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight and moisture. It’s essential to follow the instructions on the packaging regarding storage conditions to maintain their potency and effectiveness over time. Checking the expiration date regularly is also crucial to ensure their safety and efficacy.

How do Cloves taste, and can they be mixed with other herbs or foods for palatability?

Cloves have a distinct taste characterized by their warm, sweet, and slightly bitter flavor profile. Their aromatic nature adds depth to dishes, often described as spicy, with a hint of astringency. They pair well with various herbs and foods, complementing both sweet and savory recipes. Combining cloves with cinnamon, nutmeg, or cardamom enhances their aromatic qualities in baking, while in savory dishes, they mingle harmoniously with ginger, cumin, or coriander, creating complex and flavorful blends.

What other supplements work well together with Cloves?

Cloves, known for their unique flavor and medicinal properties, can complement various supplements to enhance overall health and well-being:

  • Turmeric (Curcumin): Combining cloves with Turmeric can amplify their anti-inflammatory properties. Both contain compounds that support joint health and reduce inflammation.
  • Cinnamon: Cloves and Cinnamon are often used together due to their synergistic effects on blood sugar levels. This combination may help manage blood glucose and improve insulin sensitivity.
  • Ginger: Cloves and Ginger share similar anti-inflammatory and digestive properties. Together, they can aid digestion, alleviate nausea, and support overall gastrointestinal health.
  • Garlic: Cloves and Garlic have potent antimicrobial properties. Combining them may enhance their ability to combat infections and promote immune health.
  • Vitamin C: Cloves are rich in antioxidants, and pairing them with vitamin C supplements can boost immune support and enhance the body’s ability to fight free radicals.
  • Probiotics: Cloves’ antimicrobial properties can work in tandem with probiotics to promote a healthy gut microbiome. This combination may support digestive health and strengthen the immune system.
  • Peppermint: Combining cloves with Peppermint can aid digestion and alleviate gastrointestinal discomfort. Both have soothing properties that can provide relief from digestive issues.

Is there any scientific research or clinical evidence supporting Cloves’ effectiveness?

Scientific studies have explored cloves’ potential health benefits. Clove oil, in particular, contains compounds like eugenol with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Research suggests cloves may aid in dental health by reducing bacteria in the mouth and soothing discomfort. However, while promising, more extensive clinical trials are needed to validate cloves’ effectiveness for various health conditions.

Find the Best Cloves Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any age restrictions for using Cloves (e.g., suitable for the elderly)?

There aren’t strict age restrictions for using cloves, but as with any herb or spice, moderation is crucial. For the elderly, cloves’ potential benefits, particularly for oral health or digestive issues, can be advantageous. However, consulting a healthcare provider is wise, especially if there are existing health conditions or medications involved.

Do Cloves require a specific preparation method, such as decoction or infusion?

Cloves can be used in various forms depending on the desired outcome. For culinary purposes, whole cloves are often used in cooking or ground into powder. To extract their flavors for medicinal use, cloves are steeped in hot water as an infusion or simmered in liquid as a decoction. Each method serves different purposes, from enhancing flavors in cooking to maximizing the health benefits of herbal remedies.

Can Cloves be used topically (externally) in addition to internal consumption?

Yes, cloves are versatile and can be applied topically. Clove oil, diluted properly to avoid skin irritation, is commonly used for its analgesic properties. It’s applied externally to soothe minor aches and toothaches or as part of aromatherapy for relaxation. However, caution is necessary due to its potent nature.

Are there any known symptoms of overdose or excessive use of Cloves?

Symptoms of an overdose or excessive use of cloves can include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and even liver damage. While cloves have health benefits, consuming them in excessive amounts may lead to adverse effects due to their high concentration of compounds like eugenol.

What is Cloves’s mode of action within the body?

Cloves exert their effects through various mechanisms in the body. Eugenol, a primary compound in cloves, has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. It works by inhibiting certain enzymes and pathways involved in pain and inflammation, making it useful in traditional medicine for dental pain relief and as a topical remedy for minor aches.

Are there any known synergistic effects when Cloves are combined with specific nutrients?

Cloves can exhibit synergistic effects when combined with specific nutrients or herbs. For instance, when paired with cinnamon or ginger, cloves may enhance their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Additionally, combining cloves with turmeric may potentially boost their individual anti-inflammatory effects.

Do Cloves have a distinct aroma or essential oil that may have therapeutic benefits?

The distinct aroma and essential oil of cloves contain compounds like eugenol, which have demonstrated therapeutic benefits. This aroma is often used in aromatherapy to alleviate stress, headaches, and respiratory issues. Clove oil has also been explored for its antimicrobial properties and potential benefits for oral health.

Are there any cultural or historical uses of Cloves that should be considered?

Cloves have a rich cultural and historical significance. They were extensively used in ancient Chinese and Indian medicine for various ailments, from digestive issues to respiratory problems. Moreover, cloves have been valued in cooking and preservation throughout history and have been used in traditional practices like Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine for their medicinal properties. Additionally, they have been used in rituals, perfumery, and even as a natural insect repellent in various cultures.

Do Cloves have any spiritual or ceremonial significance in certain traditions?

Cloves carry significant spiritual and ceremonial symbolism in various cultures. They’ve been used in rituals to cleanse spaces, invite positive energy, and even in religious ceremonies. Their aromatic nature and association with purification and protection make them a common ingredient in incense blends used during meditation or spiritual practices.

Are there any variations in Cloves’ potency based on their geographic origin?

The potency of cloves can indeed vary based on their geographic origin. Factors such as soil composition, climate, and growing conditions impact their chemical composition, affecting the concentration of active compounds like eugenol. Cloves from different regions might exhibit slight variations in taste, aroma, and potency.

Do Cloves have a known effect on specific organs or body systems?

Cloves possess notable effects on specific organs and body systems. Their active component, eugenol, contributes to their analgesic, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. They often impact oral health by soothing toothaches or promoting gum health. Additionally, cloves’ antimicrobial nature might offer digestive support and aid in respiratory health.

Are there any known interactions of Cloves with commonly prescribed medications?

Cloves can interact with certain medications. Their blood-thinning properties could potentially interact with anticoagulant drugs, impacting blood clotting. Also, those undergoing surgery should be cautious due to this effect. Moreover, individuals on medications metabolized by specific enzymes might experience altered drug effectiveness when combined with cloves.

What are the potential benefits and risks of long-term or chronic use of Cloves?

Long-term or chronic use of cloves may offer benefits but also pose risks. Benefits may include improved oral health, digestive support, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, prolonged use might lead to adverse effects like liver damage due to excessive eugenol intake. Allergic reactions or interactions with medications are also concerns in extended use, warranting moderation and consultation with a healthcare professional.

Is it advisable to cycle on and off Cloves to prevent tolerance or dependence?

Cycling on and off cloves to prevent tolerance or dependence isn’t a standard practice recommended. Generally, cloves are not associated with the development of tolerance or dependence when used in culinary amounts or as a natural remedy. However, if someone is using concentrated forms or large doses for medicinal purposes, moderation might be considered to avoid potential adverse effects. Still, it’s crucial to consult a healthcare professional for personalized guidance.

Are there any precautions regarding driving or operating machinery while using Cloves?

Regarding driving or operating machinery while using cloves, there isn’t significant evidence suggesting any impairment caused by consuming normal culinary amounts. However, excessive consumption of clove oil or concentrated forms might cause dizziness or drowsiness in some individuals. It’s advisable to be cautious and assess personal reactions before engaging in activities requiring full concentration after consuming concentrated forms of cloves.

There aren’t specific dietary restrictions associated with the use of cloves in culinary amounts. However, for those using concentrated forms or higher doses for medicinal purposes, it’s recommended to seek advice from a healthcare provider. Lifestyle changes might be suggested if someone is using cloves to address specific health concerns, but these changes would be individualized and based on overall health conditions.

Do Cloves have any specific recommendations for addressing common side effects?

Common side effects of cloves, when used in moderation, are usually mild and temporary, such as mouth or throat irritation. To address these, diluting concentrated forms, like clove oil, or reducing the frequency of use could be helpful. If side effects persist or worsen, seeking medical advice is recommended.

Are there any known variations or subspecies of Cloves with different properties?

Cloves primarily come from the Syzygium aromaticum tree, and while there might be variations in flavor and aroma due to factors like growing conditions, there isn’t substantial evidence suggesting significant variations in properties among different subspecies. However, certain regions or methods of cultivation might produce cloves with nuanced differences in taste or fragrance.

Do Cloves have any documented cases of misuse or abuse?

Cloves, commonly used in culinary and traditional medicine, haven’t been widely associated with misuse or abuse. However, their potent compounds, if used excessively, might lead to adverse effects. Reports rarely document misuse cases. Clove oil, in particular, requires cautious use due to its high concentration, which could cause skin irritation or allergic reactions if not properly diluted.

Are Cloves regulated or approved for medicinal use in the United States?

In the United States, the FDA regards cloves as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in food. However, their approval for medicinal purposes remains limited. Cloves are available as supplements but lack comprehensive FDA approval for specific health claims. Research continues to explore their medicinal potential.

Are there any known interactions of Cloves when combined with other medicinal herbs?

Cloves, a popular spice used in various cuisines, do have known interactions with other medicinal herbs. When combined with herbs like garlic, ginger, or turmeric, cloves may enhance their medicinal properties due to their synergistic effects. However, it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare professional or an herbalist before combining cloves with other herbs, especially if taking medications or dealing with specific health conditions. Some combinations might have unexpected effects or interfere with medications.

How does Cloves’ preparation or dosage change for acute versus chronic conditions?

The preparation and dosage of cloves can vary for acute and chronic conditions. For acute issues like toothaches or digestive problems, cloves’ immediate relief often involves direct application or consumption in smaller doses. In contrast, chronic conditions might benefit from a more sustained, regulated intake, like incorporating cloves into meals or taking standardized supplements. Adjusting the dosage based on the severity and duration of the condition is advisable, always considering individual tolerance and any concurrent treatments.

Find the Best Cloves Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any known withdrawal symptoms when discontinuing the use of Cloves?

There aren’t significant documented withdrawal symptoms associated with discontinuing the use of cloves. Generally, cloves used in culinary or supplemental forms don’t create dependency or withdrawal effects upon cessation. However, individuals who have been using cloves excessively for an extended period might experience minor discomforts like mild digestive disturbances or a temporary decrease in the previously experienced benefits. Gradual reduction of consumption can help alleviate such potential discomforts.

What are the best supplement brands of Cloves?

Several supplement brands offer quality cloves products. Brands like Nature’s Way, NOW Foods, and Gaia Herbs are often recommended for their commitment to quality, sourcing practices, and stringent manufacturing standards. However, individual preferences, including formulation, price, and availability, might vary, so researching and consulting with healthcare professionals can help select the best-suited supplement brand for specific needs.

Article References & Sources

At AncientHerbsWisdom, our content relies on reputable sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to substantiate the information presented in our articles. Our primary objective is to ensure our content is thoroughly fact-checked, maintaining a commitment to accuracy, reliability, and trustworthiness.

  1. Cortés-Rojas, D. F., & Oliveira, W. P. (2014). Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): A precious spice. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 4(2), 90-96. 
  2. El-Saber Batiha G, Alkazmi LM, Wasef LG, Beshbishy AM, Nadwa EH, Rashwan EK. Syzygium aromaticum l. (Myrtaceae): traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents, pharmacological and toxicological activities. Biomolecules. 2020;10(2):202. doi:10.3390/biom10020202.
  3. NaturalMedicines. Cloves.
  4. Batiha GE, Alkazmi LM, Wasef LG, Beshbishy AM, Nadwa EH, Rashwan EK. Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae): traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents, pharmacological and toxicological activities. Biomolecules. 2020;10(2):202. doi:10.3390/biom10020202
  5. Vicidomini C, Roviello V, Roviello GN. Molecular basis of the therapeutical potential of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) and clues to its anti-covid-19 utility. Molecules. 2021;26(7):1880. doi:10.3390/molecules26071880.
  6. MedlinePlus. Clove.
  7. Nisar MF, Khadim M, Rafiq M, Chen J, Yang Y, Wan CC. Pharmacological properties and health benefits of eugenol: a comprehensive review. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021;2021:2497354. doi:10.1155/2021/2497354.
  8. Alqareer A, Alyahya A, Andersson L. The effect of clove and benzocaine versus placebo as topical anesthetics. J Dent. 2006;34(10):747-750. doi:10.1016/j.jdent.2006.01.009
  9. Kubatka P, Uramova S, Kello M, et al. Antineoplastic effects of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L.) in the model of breast carcinoma. J Cell Mol Med. 2017;21(11):2837-2851. doi:10.1111/jcmm.13197.
  10. Kumar, P. S., Febriyanti, R. M., Sofyan, F. F., Luftimas, D. E., & Abdulah, R. (2014, October–December). Anticancer potential of Syzygium aromaticum L. in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines. Pharmacognosy Research, 6(4), 350–354
  11. Kothwale SV, Patwardhan V, Gandhi M, Sohoni R, Kumar A. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2014;18(3):316-320. doi:10.4103/0972-124X.134568
  12. Chniguir A, Zioud F, Marzaioli V, El-Benna J, Bachoual R. Syzygium aromaticum aqueous extract inhibits human neutrophils myeloperoxidase and protects mice from LPS-induced lung inflammation. Pharm Biol. 2019;57(1):56-64. doi:10.1080/13880209.2018.1557697.
  13. Carvalho RPR, Lima GDA, Machado-Neves M. Effect of eugenol treatment in hyperglycemic murine models: a meta-analysis. Pharmacol Res. 2021;165:105315. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105315
  14. Jahanshir M, Nobahar M, Ghorbani R, Malek F. Effect of clove mouthwash on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care unit patients: a comparative randomized triple-blind clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig. 2023:1-12. doi:10.1007/s00784-023-04972-w.
  15. Mohan R, Jose S, Mulakkal J, Karpinsky-Semper D, Swick AG, Krishnakumar IM. Water-soluble polyphenol-rich clove extract lowers pre- and post-prandial blood glucose levels in healthy and prediabetic volunteers: an open label pilot study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019;19(1):99. doi:10.1186/s12906-019-2507-7
  16. Kiki MJ. In vitro antiviral potential, antioxidant, and chemical composition of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) essential oil. Molecules. 2023;28(6):2421. doi:10.3390/molecules28062421.
  17. Nirmala MJ, Durai L, Gopakumar V, Nagarajan R. Anticancer and antibacterial effects of a clove bud essential oil-based nanoscale emulsion system. Int J Nanomedicine. 2019;14:6439-6450. doi:10.2147/IJN.S211047
  18. Liu, H., Schmitz, J. C., Wei, J., Cao, S., Beumer, J. H., Strychor, S., … Lin, X. (2014, August 14). Clove extract inhibits tumor growth and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Oncology Research, 21(5), 247–259
  19. Chandra Manivannan A, Malaisamy A, Eswaran M, et al. Evaluation of clove phytochemicals as potential antiviral drug candidates targeting sars-cov-2 main protease: computational docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and pharmacokinetic profiling. Front Mol Biosci. 2022;9:918101. doi:10.3389/fmolb.2022.918101. 
  20. Mohan R, Jose S, Mulakkal J, Karpinsky-Semper D, Swick AG, Krishnakumar IM. Water-soluble polyphenol-rich clove extract lowers pre- and post-prandial blood glucose levels in healthy and prediabetic volunteers: an open label pilot study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019;19:99.doi:10.1186/s12906-019-2507-7.
  21. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Botanical dietary supplements—background information.
  22. Begum SN, Ray AS, Rahaman CH. A comprehensive and systematic review on potential anticancer activities of eugenol: from pre-clinical evidence to molecular mechanisms of action. Phytomedicine. 2022;107:154456. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154456
  23. Eugenol (Clove oil). In: LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012.
  24. Percival SS, Vanden Heuvel JP, Nieves CJ, Montero C, Migliaccio AJ, Meadors J.Bioavailability of herbs and spices in humans as determined by ex vivo inflammatory suppression and DNA strand breaks. J Am Coll Nutr. 2012;31(4):288-294. doi:10.1080/07315724.2012.10720438
  25. Adefegha, S. A., Oboh, G., Adefegha, O. M., & Athayde, M. L. (2014, October). Antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects of dietary clove (Szyzgium aromaticum) bud powder in a high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetes rat model [Abstract]. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94(13), 2726–2737
  26. Clove oil. (2018, January 14)
  27. Cloves. (n.d.)
  28. Nagababu E, Rifkind JM, Boindala S, Nakka L. Assessment of antioxidant activity of eugenol in vitro and in vivo. Methods Mol Biol. 2009:165-180. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-029-8_10
  29. Ding, Y., Gu, Z., Wang, Y., Wang, S., Chen, H., Zhang, H., … Chen, Y. Q. (2017, August 1). Clove extract functions as a natural fatty acid synthesis inhibitor and prevents obesity in a mouse model [Abstract]. Food & Function, 8(8), 2847–2856
  30. Eugenol (clove oil). In: LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012.
  31. Full report (all nutrients): 02011, spices, cloves, ground. (2016, May)
  32. Ghaffar, S., Afridi, S. K., Aftab, M. F., Murtaza, M., Hafizur, R. M., Sara, S., . . . Waraich, R. S. (2017, April). Clove and its active compound attenuate free fatty acid-mediated insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells and in mice [Abstract]. Journal of Medicinal Food, 20(4), 335–344
  33. Tempest, M. (2012, March). Adding spice for a healthier life — evidence shows antioxidant-rich herbs and spices may cut chronic disease risk. Today’s Dietitian, 14(3), 40
  34. Brown SA, Biggerstaff J, Savidge GF. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatocellular necrosis due to clove oil. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1992;3(5):665-668. doi:10.1097/00001721-199210000-00025
  35. Hartnoll, G., Moore, D., & Douek, D. (1993, September). Near fatal ingestion of oil of cloves. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 69(3), 392–393
  36. Nathan M. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: therapeutic guide to herbal medicines. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1999;130(5):459. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-130-5-199903020-00024.
  37. Heck, A. M., DeWitt, B. A., & Lukes, A. L. (2000, July 1). Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin [Abstract]. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 57(13), 1221–1227
  38. Janes, S. E. J., Price, C. S. G., & Thomas, D. (2005, August). Essential oil poisoning: N-acetylcysteine for eugenol-induced hepatic failure and analysis of a national database [Abstract]. European Journal of Pediatrics, 164(8), 520–522

Valuable Resources