Everything You Need To Know About Echinacea Purpurea Benefits, Uses & Side Effects

Echinacea purpurea is a flower that has garnered attention for its remarkable potential to support the immune system. This vibrant, purple-petaled plant holds a special place in the realm of herbal medicine, and we’re about to uncover its secrets.

Understanding Echinacea Purpurea

Before we dive into its uses and benefits, let’s get acquainted with Echinacea purpurea. This remarkable flowering plant is native to North America and is commonly known as the purple coneflower. It’s a member of the daisy family and stands out with its striking purple or pink petals and spiky, orange-brown central cones.

The Anatomy of Echinacea Purpurea

Echinacea purpurea, often referred to as the American coneflower, is famed for its roots, which contain the primary bioactive compounds responsible for its medicinal properties. These compounds include polysaccharides, alkamides, glycoproteins, and flavonoids, which work together to stimulate and support the immune system.

Echinacea purpurea is available in various forms, including capsules, tinctures, teas, and topicals. These different forms allow individuals to choose the most convenient and effective way to incorporate this herbal remedy into their health routine.

Cultural and historical uses of Echinacea Purpurea

This plant has deep roots in the traditions of various cultures and has been utilized for generations. Let’s unravel its historical tapestry.

Indigenous American Traditions:

Echinacea purpurea has a profound history in Native American cultures, particularly among the Plains Indians. These indigenous tribes revered it as a sacred and potent medicinal herb. The plant was used to address various health concerns, from snakebites to toothaches.

Immune Support:

Native American tribes recognized Echinacea purpurea’s immune-boosting properties. They brewed it into teas, tinctures, or poultices to bolster the body’s natural defenses, especially during cold and flu seasons.

Wider Recognition:

The knowledge of Echinacea purpurea’s benefits eventually extended beyond indigenous communities. In the late 19th century, European settlers became interested in the plant’s medicinal properties, and it gained recognition in Western herbal medicine.

19th-Century Resurgence:

In the 19th century, Echinacea purpurea experienced a resurgence in popularity, thanks in part to the research and writings of Dr. H.C.F. Meyer, a prominent physician. His studies on the plant’s immune-boosting effects brought it to the attention of a broader audience.

Contemporary Use:

Today, Echinacea purpurea remains a staple in herbal medicine. It’s widely appreciated for its immune-supportive properties, and its reputation as a natural remedy for the common cold and other respiratory ailments has endured.

Scientific Exploration:

In more recent times, scientific research has shed light on the bioactive compounds in Echinacea purpurea, confirming its potential to modulate the immune system and combat infections. These studies have contributed to its continued popularity.

Across Cultures:

Echinacea purpurea’s reach extends beyond North America. In Germany, Echinacea products are often prescribed by healthcare professionals and used by the general public to boost immunity and alleviate symptoms of colds and upper respiratory tract infections.

A Universal Remedy:

Echinacea purpurea has earned its place as a universal remedy, transcending cultural boundaries and enduring for generations. Its historical significance showcases its unwavering value as a natural resource for supporting human health.

echinacea purpurea benefits

Spiritual and ceremonial significance of Echinacea Purpurea

This remarkable plant also holds spiritual and ceremonial significance in the beliefs and practices of some cultures. Let’s dive into the spiritual essence of Echinacea purpurea.

The Sacred Medicine Wheel:

Native American traditions often incorporate Echinacea purpurea into their sacred rituals. In the context of the medicine wheel, a sacred symbol representing the interconnection of all life, Echinacea holds a special place. It is associated with the direction of the south, symbolizing vitality and growth.

Prayer and Healing Rituals:

Echinacea purpurea is believed to enhance the effectiveness of healing ceremonies and prayers. It is used to purify and protect individuals, spaces, and sacred objects, ensuring that the energies invoked during the rituals remain pure and positive.

Connection to the Sun:

In some Native American beliefs, Echinacea purpurea is associated with the sun, which is considered a powerful and life-giving force. This connection to the sun reinforces the plant’s role in promoting vitality and well-being.

A Symbol of Resilience:

Echinacea purpurea, with its robust growth and vibrant blooms, is seen as a symbol of resilience. It embodies the strength and tenacity needed to thrive in the face of adversity, aligning with spiritual teachings of endurance and inner fortitude.

The Power of Connection:

The spiritual significance of Echinacea purpurea extends beyond the plant itself. It emphasizes the profound connection between the natural world, humanity, and the spiritual realm. This interconnectedness is a central theme in indigenous cultures.

Modern Interpretations:

In modern times, the spiritual significance of Echinacea purpurea continues to be recognized. Some people incorporate it into their spiritual practices, rituals, and ceremonies, embracing its symbolic representation of vitality and resilience.

What are the potential medicinal benefits of Echinacea Purpurea?

Echinacea purpurea, with its striking appearance and rich history, is not just a pretty face in the world of herbs. It offers a host of potential medicinal benefits that have attracted the attention of both herbalists and modern science. Let’s explore the impressive array of health benefits this purple coneflower can bring to the table.

Immune System Support:

Echinacea purpurea is perhaps best known for its immune-boosting properties. It stimulates the activity of immune cells, enhancing the body’s natural defense mechanisms. This immune support is especially valuable during cold and flu seasons when it can help prevent and alleviate respiratory infections.

Cold and Flu Relief:

Research suggests that Echinacea purpurea may reduce the duration and severity of cold and flu symptoms. It can help ease symptoms like congestion, sore throat, and cough, making it a go-to remedy for seasonal maladies.

Respiratory Health:

Beyond colds and flu, Echinacea purpurea can benefit overall respiratory health. It may provide relief for conditions like bronchitis and sinusitis by reducing inflammation and combating infections.

Wound Healing:

Topically, Echinacea purpurea can accelerate wound healing. It has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties that promote skin health and minimize the risk of infection.

Antioxidant Power:

Echinacea purpurea is rich in antioxidants, which combat free radicals in the body. This antioxidant power may contribute to its immune-boosting effects and offer protection against chronic diseases.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects:

Chronic inflammation is at the root of many health issues, from arthritis to heart disease. Echinacea purpurea’s anti-inflammatory properties may help manage these conditions by reducing inflammation and discomfort.

Stress Reduction:

Echinacea purpurea may also offer stress-reducing benefits. It helps regulate the body’s stress response, making it a valuable herb for those dealing with chronic stress or anxiety.

Upper Respiratory Infections:

Studies have shown that Echinacea purpurea can effectively combat upper respiratory infections, including the common cold. It may help prevent infection and reduce the duration of symptoms.

Enhanced Immune Response:

Echinacea purpurea can boost the immune system’s overall responsiveness. It helps immune cells recognize and combat pathogens more effectively, enhancing the body’s defense mechanisms.

Aiding in Allergy Relief:

Some research suggests that Echinacea purpurea may alleviate allergy symptoms. It can reduce the severity of allergic reactions, making it a useful natural remedy for those with allergies.

Echinacea purpurea’s potential medicinal benefits extend to a wide range of health concerns, making it a versatile herbal ally in supporting overall well-being. It’s a testament to the power of nature in promoting health and vitality.

Find the Best Echinacea Purpure Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

What other herbs work combined with Echinacea Purpurea?

In the world of herbal medicine, combining the powers of different herbs often leads to synergistic effects, where the whole becomes greater than the sum of its parts. Echinacea purpurea is no exception, and it can harmonize with various other herbs to amplify its therapeutic benefits. Let’s explore the art of herbal blending and discover which herbs work best in conjunction with Echinacea purpurea.

Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis):

Goldenseal is a herb well-known for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. When combined with Echinacea purpurea, it creates a potent duo, ideal for addressing infections and inflammation. This combination is often used to alleviate upper respiratory infections and soothe irritated mucous membranes.

Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus):

Astragalus is renowned for its immune-boosting capabilities. When paired with Echinacea purpurea, it provides a comprehensive approach to fortifying the immune system. This combination can be particularly valuable during cold and flu seasons or for those seeking overall immune support.

Elderberry (Sambucus nigra):

Elderberry is a well-regarded herb for cold and flu relief. When combined with Echinacea purpurea, it creates a powerhouse blend for combating viral infections and alleviating symptoms. Elderberry’s antiviral properties complement Echinacea’s immune-boosting effects.

Garlic (Allium sativum):

Garlic has a long history of use for its antimicrobial and immune-enhancing properties. When used alongside Echinacea purpurea, it can bolster the body’s defense mechanisms and protect against infections.

Calendula (Calendula officinalis):

Calendula (Pot Marigold) is known for its wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties. When combined with Echinacea purpurea, it can enhance the healing of external wounds and soothe skin irritations. This blend is ideal for topical applications to promote skin health.

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra):

Licorice possesses anti-inflammatory and soothing properties. When blended with Echinacea purpurea, it can provide relief for respiratory conditions and reduce inflammation in the throat and bronchial passages.

Oregano (Origanum vulgare):

Oregano is a potent herb with antimicrobial properties, particularly against bacteria and fungi. When combined with Echinacea purpurea, it creates a dynamic duo for addressing infections and bolstering the immune system.

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium):

Yarrow is valued for its ability to reduce fever and inflammation. When used in conjunction with Echinacea purpurea, it can provide relief for febrile conditions, making it a valuable blend for infections accompanied by fever.

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla):

Chamomile is well-known for its soothing and anti-inflammatory properties. When paired with Echinacea purpurea, it can create a calming blend, ideal for alleviating stress and anxiety while supporting overall health.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale):

Ginger is a versatile herb with anti-inflammatory and digestive benefits. When combined with Echinacea purpurea, it can enhance the blend’s anti-inflammatory effects and provide relief for conditions involving both inflammation and digestive discomfort.

These are just a few examples of herbs that can be combined with Echinacea purpurea to create herbal blends tailored to specific health concerns. When blending herbs, it’s crucial to consider the individual properties of each herb and the desired therapeutic outcome. Whether it’s for immune support, respiratory health, or skin healing, the synergy between Echinacea purpurea and other herbs offers a holistic approach to health and well-being.

Echinacea Purpurea: Potential side effects, Precautions and contraindications

While Echinacea purpurea is celebrated for its numerous health benefits, it’s essential to be aware of its potential side effects and precautions.

Allergic Reactions:

Some individuals may be allergic to Echinacea purpurea. Allergic reactions can range from mild skin rashes and itching to more severe symptoms, including swelling of the face, lips, or throat, difficulty breathing, and anaphylaxis. If you suspect an allergy, discontinue use immediately and seek medical attention.

Gastrointestinal Distress:

In some cases, Echinacea purpurea may lead to gastrointestinal discomfort, including nausea, stomachache, or diarrhea. Adjusting the dosage or discontinuing use can help alleviate these symptoms.

Immune System Modulation:

While Echinacea purpurea primarily boosts the immune system, it can have a modulating effect, which means it can both stimulate and suppress immune responses. This makes it important to use with caution if you have autoimmune conditions, as it may exacerbate them.

Cross-Reactivity with Ragweed:

Echinacea purpurea is a member of the Asteraceae family, which includes ragweed. Some individuals with ragweed allergies may experience cross-reactivity and exhibit allergic responses to Echinacea. If you have ragweed allergies, exercise caution when using this herb.

Drug Interactions:

Echinacea purpurea can interact with certain medications, including immunosuppressants, antifungal drugs, and medications affecting the liver. It’s essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using Echinacea if you’re taking any prescription medications.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding:

The safety of Echinacea purpurea during pregnancy and breastfeeding has not been definitively established. While some herbalists consider it safe during pregnancy, it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare provider before use, especially in the early stages of pregnancy.

Duration of Use:

Echinacea purpurea is generally safe for short-term use, but its safety for long-term use has not been extensively studied. Prolonged use should be supervised by a healthcare provider to avoid potential complications.

Pediatric Use:

Echinacea purpurea is not recommended for children under the age of 2, and its use in older children should be guided by a healthcare professional. It’s crucial to use appropriate pediatric formulations and dosages.

Quality and Source:

The quality and source of Echinacea purpurea products can vary. To ensure safety and effectiveness, choose reputable and well-established brands when purchasing Echinacea supplements or herbal products.

Individual Variability:

Each person’s response to Echinacea purpurea may differ. It’s essential to pay attention to your body’s reactions and consult with a healthcare provider if you experience any adverse effects.

While Echinacea purpurea is generally safe, these potential side effects and precautions underscore the importance of responsible and informed usage. Consulting with a healthcare provider or herbalist can provide personalized guidance, ensuring that Echinacea is used in a manner that maximizes its benefits and minimizes any potential risks.

Find the Best Echinacea Purpure Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Echinacea Purpurea: Drug interactions

The interaction between herbs and pharmaceutical drugs can have significant implications for your health. Echinacea purpurea, a powerful herbal remedy, is no exception. It’s essential to be aware of potential drug interactions to ensure safe and effective use.


Echinacea purpurea stimulates the immune system. When taken with immunosuppressant medications, which are often prescribed to organ transplant recipients or individuals with autoimmune diseases, there is a potential for reduced drug effectiveness. This can be particularly concerning if you rely on immunosuppressants to prevent organ rejection or manage autoimmune conditions.

Antifungal Medications:

Certain antifungal drugs, such as ketoconazole, are metabolized in the liver. Echinacea purpurea may affect liver enzyme activity, potentially altering the way the body processes these medications. This can lead to changes in drug levels and may affect their efficacy.

Liver Medications:

Echinacea purpurea, due to its potential influence on liver enzymes, may interact with medications that are metabolized in the liver. This includes drugs used to manage various liver conditions, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis. Consult with a healthcare provider before combining Echinacea with such medications.

Blood Thinners (Anticoagulants):

Echinacea purpurea can affect blood clotting, and when combined with anticoagulant medications like warfarin, it may increase the risk of bleeding. It’s crucial to maintain close medical supervision and regular monitoring of blood clotting parameters when using both Echinacea and anticoagulants.

Central Nervous System Depressants:

Echinacea purpurea may interact with medications that have sedative or central nervous system depressant effects, leading to enhanced drowsiness or dizziness. This can affect the safety and effectiveness of drugs such as benzodiazepines or certain pain medications.

Anti-Seizure Medications:

Individuals taking anti-seizure medications, also known as anticonvulsants, should exercise caution when considering Echinacea purpurea. The potential interaction could affect the stability of seizure management.

Anti-Hypertensive Medications:

Echinacea purpurea may interact with medications prescribed to manage high blood pressure (antihypertensives). It could affect blood pressure regulation and require close monitoring when used alongside such drugs.

Anti-Diabetic Medications:

For individuals managing diabetes with medications that lower blood sugar levels, there is a potential for interaction with Echinacea purpurea. The herb may affect blood sugar regulation and necessitate adjustments to diabetes management.

Cardiovascular Medications:

Some cardiovascular medications may interact with Echinacea purpurea, impacting their effectiveness. It’s important to consult with a healthcare provider when considering this combination.

Hormone Medications:

Echinacea purpurea may influence the metabolism of certain hormones and could impact the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy or medications used to manage hormonal imbalances.

The potential for drug interactions with Echinacea purpurea underscores the importance of open communication with healthcare providers. Always disclose your use of herbal remedies like Echinacea when discussing your medication regimen. Healthcare professionals can provide guidance and make adjustments as needed to ensure your health and well-being are not compromised.

Echinacea Purpurea dosage and forms

Echinacea purpurea offers a range of dosage options and forms to suit individual preferences and health needs. Understanding these options allows you to make informed choices about how to incorporate this herbal remedy into your health routine.

Capsules and Tablets:

Echinacea purpurea is commonly available in capsule or tablet form. These pre-measured doses are convenient and easy to incorporate into your daily routine. Typical dosages range from 200 to 500 milligrams per capsule, and the recommended dosage can vary based on individual health goals.

Liquid Extracts and Tinctures:

Liquid extracts and tinctures are potent options that allow for more precise dosing. These forms can be added to water or juice for easy consumption. Typical dosages range from 1 to 2 milliliters per day, depending on the product’s concentration.

Teas and Herbal Infusions:

Echinacea purpurea is also available as a dried herb for brewing herbal teas or infusions. Steeping the dried herb in hot water releases its beneficial compounds. You can enjoy a cup of Echinacea tea multiple times a day, with a typical dosage of 1-2 teaspoons of dried herb per cup of hot water.

Topical Creams and Ointments:

Topical forms of Echinacea purpurea are used for skin-related issues, such as wound healing or skin irritations. The dosage depends on the specific product and its intended use. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for proper application.

Herbal Combinations:

Echinacea purpurea is often included in herbal blends designed for specific health concerns. These combinations may feature other immune-boosting herbs, respiratory remedies, or skin-healing plants. Dosages vary depending on the specific blend and intended usage.

Syrups and Lozenges:

Syrups and lozenges that contain Echinacea purpurea are often used for soothing sore throats and coughs. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for appropriate dosages, as they can vary between products.

Pediatric Formulas:

Specialized Echinacea purpurea products formulated for children are available in various forms, including liquid extracts, syrups, and lozenges. These products are designed with dosages suitable for pediatric use, and it’s important to follow the recommendations provided on the product packaging or by a healthcare provider.

Powdered Herb:

Echinacea purpurea in powdered form can be added to smoothies, juices, or foods. Dosages can vary widely depending on individual preferences and the specific health goals.

Echinacea Purpurea in Food:

Some health-conscious individuals incorporate Echinacea purpurea into their diets by using fresh or dried herbs as a culinary ingredient. The dosage in culinary applications depends on the quantity used in recipes.

Customized Blends:

Herbalists often create customized herbal blends tailored to an individual’s specific health needs. Echinacea purpurea can be included in these blends in various forms and dosages, guided by the herbalist’s expertise.

When determining the appropriate dosage and form of Echinacea purpurea, it’s important to consider your health goals, age, weight, and any specific health concerns. Consulting with a healthcare provider or herbalist can provide personalized guidance to ensure you use Echinacea effectively and safely.

Find the Best Echinacea Purpure Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

The bottom line

As we conclude our in-depth exploration of Echinacea purpurea, let’s recap the key takeaways and considerations regarding this remarkable herbal remedy.

Echinacea purpurea, with its striking purple petals and rich history, is a potent botanical ally. It offers a multitude of potential medicinal benefits, primarily focused on immune support, respiratory health, and wound healing.

This herbal gem has a deep-rooted history in Native American traditions and continues to be valued for its cultural, historical, and even spiritual significance. Its association with vitality, resilience, and interconnectedness with the natural world adds a layer of depth to its use.

Echinacea purpurea has demonstrated the ability to boost the immune system, making it a popular choice for those seeking to fend off colds and flu. Its role in reducing inflammation, alleviating stress, and supporting overall health showcases its versatility.

When used in conjunction with other herbs, Echinacea purpurea can create powerful synergies. Blends with herbs like goldenseal, astragalus, elderberry, or garlic can target specific health concerns, from infections to immune enhancement.

However, it’s crucial to be aware of potential side effects and precautions. Allergic reactions, gastrointestinal discomfort, and interactions with certain medications are important considerations when using Echinacea purpurea.

The herb-drug interactions are particularly significant, especially if you are taking immunosuppressants, antifungal medications, or drugs metabolized in the liver. Always consult with a healthcare provider to ensure safe and effective use.

Echinacea purpurea offers a variety of forms and dosages to suit individual preferences and health needs. Whether you opt for capsules, teas, or topical applications, selecting the right form can enhance your experience.

In your journey with Echinacea purpurea, remember that quality and source matter. Choose reputable brands and sources to ensure the efficacy and safety of the products you use.

Ultimately, Echinacea purpurea is a natural resource that holds the potential to support your health and well-being. With the guidance of healthcare professionals or herbalists, you can harness its benefits to enhance your health journey.

Frequently Asked Questions

Echinacea Purpurea Unveiled: Answering 50 Common Questions

Article Sources

At AncientHerbsWisdom, our content relies on reputable sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to substantiate the information presented in our articles. Our primary objective is to ensure that our content is thoroughly fact-checked, maintaining a commitment to accuracy, reliability, and trustworthiness.

  1. Echinacea. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. July 2020. 
  2. Oláh A, Szabó-Papp J, Soeberdt M, et al. Echinacea purpurea-derived alkylamides exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects and alleviate clinical symptoms of atopic eczema. J Dermatol Sci. 2017;88(1):67-77. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2017.05.015
  3. Manayi A, Vazirian M, Saeidnia S. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods. Pharmacogn Rev. 2015 Jan-Jun;9(17):63-72. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.156353. PMID: 26009695; PMCID: PMC4441164. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4441164/ 
  4. Echinacea. (2016).
  5. Echinacea Angustifolia (AnxioCalm) in Anxiety. ClinicalTrials.gov. March 24, 2022.
  6. Echinacea — uses. (2015).
  7. Senica M, Mlinsek G, Veberic R, Mikulic-Petkovsek M. Which Plant Part of Purple Coneflower (Echinacea Purpurea (L.) Moench) Should be Used for Tea and Which for Tincture? Journal of Medicinal Food. January 2019.
  8. Hudson, J., & Vimalanathan, S. (2011). Echinacea — a source of potent antivirals for respiratory virus infections.
  9. McGrowder DA, Miller FG, Nwokocha CR, et al. Medicinal Herbs Used in Traditional Management of Breast Cancer: Mechanisms of Action. Medicines. August 2020.
  10. Johnson A, Huang YC, Mao CF, et al. Protective effect of ethanolic extract of Echinacea purpurea contained nanoparticles on meniscal/ligamentous injury induced osteoarthritis in obese male rats. Sci Rep. 2022;12(1):5354. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-09380-w
  11. Aiello AE, Coulborn RM, Perez V, Larson EL. Effect of Hand Hygiene on Infectious Disease Risk in the Community Setting: A Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Public Health. August 2008.
  12. Catanzaro M, Corsini E, Rosini M, et al. Immunomodulators Inspired by Nature: A Review on Curcumin and Echinacea. Molecules. November 2018.
  13. Haller J, Krecsak L, Zámbori J. Double-blind placebo controlled trial of the anxiolytic effects of a standardized Echinacea extract. Phytother Res. 2020;34(3):660-668. doi:10.1002/ptr.6558
  14. Bowling A. Vitamins, Minerals and Herbs in MS: An Introduction. National Multiple Sclerosis Society. 2018.
  15. Mullins RJ, Heddle R. Adverse reactions associated with echinacea: the Australian experience. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002;88(1):42-51. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)63591-0
  16. National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements. Dietary supplements: what you need to know.
  17. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Echinacea.
  18. Echinacea. In: Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®). Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; 2021.
  19. Echinaceae Purpureae Herba. European Medicines Agency. February 17, 2016.
  20. Aucoin M, Cardozo V, McLaren MD, et al. A systematic review on the effects of Echinacea supplementation on cytokine levels: Is there a role in COVID-19? Metabol Open. 2021;11:100115. doi:10.1016/j.metop.2021.100115
  21. Barrett, B., et al. (2010). Echinacea for treating the common cold: A randomized trial.
  22. Burlou-Nagy C, Bănică F, Jurca T, et al. Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench: biological and pharmacological properties. a review. Plants (Basel). 2022;11(9):1244. doi:10.3390/plants11091244
  23. Brown, P. N., et al. (2011). Determination of major phenolic compounds in Echinacea spp. raw materials and finished products by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: Single-laboratory validation matrix extension.
  24. Karsch-Völk M, Barrett B, Kiefer D, et al. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;2014(2):CD000530. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000530.pub3
  25. Percival, S. S. (2000). Use of echinacea in medicine.
  26. Predy, G. N., et al. (2005). Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides for preventing upper respiratory tract infections: A randomized controlled trial.
  27. Echinacea: What Should I Know About It? American Family Physician. January 1, 2003.
  28. Senchina, D. S., et al. Phenetic comparison of seven Echinacea species based on immunomodulatory characteristics.
  29. Catanzaro M, Corsini E, Rosini M, et al. Immunomodulators inspired by nature: a review on curcumin and echinacea. Molecules. 2018;23(11):2778. doi:10.3390/molecules23112778
  30. Shah, S. A., et al. (2007). Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: A meta-analysis [Abstract].
  31. Signer, J., et al. (2020). In vitro antiviral activity of Echinaforce, an Echinacea purpurea preparation, against common cold coronavirus 229E and highly pathogenic MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.
  32. Manayi A, Vazirian M, Saeidnia S. Echinacea purpurea: pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods. Pharmacogn Rev. 2015;9(17):63-72. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.156353