Unlocking the Secrets of Guggul: 50 Questions & Answers

Guggul is an ancient Ayurvedic wonder herb that has captivated the world of wellness. With its roots deeply embedded in traditional medicine, Guggul has piqued curiosity for its diverse range of health benefits. In this comprehensive guide, we unravel the enigma surrounding Guggul by addressing 50 of the most pressing questions. From its historical significance to its modern applications, we explore the science, uses, and potential side effects of this revered resin. This article is your definitive roadmap to understanding Guggul and harnessing its ancient wisdom for modern well-being.

Guggul: 50 Questions & Answers

What is Guggul?

Guggul, derived from the Commiphora Mukul tree resin, has deep roots in Ayurvedic medicine and is celebrated for its multifaceted health benefits. It’s a resinous substance obtained from the tree’s bark, possessing potent medicinal properties due to its rich composition of bioactive compounds.

What is the scientific name of Guggul?

The scientific name of Guggul is Commiphora wightii or Commiphora Mukul. These names denote the specific species of the myrrh tree that produces the resinous substance used in traditional medicine.

Does Guggul have other common names?

Yes, Guggul goes by various names based on regional languages and cultures. In Sanskrit, it’s known as “Guggulu,” while in Hindi and other Indian languages, it’s often referred to as “Guggul” or “Guggulu.” In English, it’s generally recognized as “Indian bdellium” or “Gum guggul.”

What is Guggul’s traditional and modern medicinal use?

Traditionally, Guggul has been highly esteemed in Ayurveda for its diverse therapeutic applications. It’s renowned for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties. In ancient medicine, it was used to treat arthritis, obesity, and various skin conditions.

Modern research also acknowledges Guggul’s potential in managing cholesterol levels, aiding weight loss, and combating inflammation. Its active constituents, guggulsterones, are believed to contribute to these health benefits, though further scientific investigation is ongoing to elucidate its mechanisms of action and potential applications. Additionally, Guggul is utilized in some cosmetic products due to its purported skin-healing and rejuvenating properties.

What nutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, etc.) does Guggul contain?

Guggul, derived from the resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, contains various bioactive compounds like guggulsterones, which are believed to possess cholesterol-lowering properties. Additionally, it contains antioxidants like flavonoids and phenols, alongside minerals such as zinc, copper, and iron. These elements contribute to its potential health benefits.

Find the Best Guggul Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any potential side effects associated with Guggul?

While Guggul is generally considered safe for most people, some individuals might experience side effects. These can include skin rashes, gastrointestinal discomfort like diarrhea or nausea, headaches, or mild skin irritation. However, adverse reactions are usually rare and mild.

Dosage recommendations for Guggul can vary depending on factors such as age, health conditions, and the specific product being used. Typical dosages for standardized extracts can range from 500 to 1,500 milligrams per day, divided into multiple doses. It’s always advisable to consult a healthcare professional for personalized guidance.

Is Guggul safe for pregnant or breastfeeding women?

Pregnant or breastfeeding women should exercise caution with Guggul. There’s limited research on its effects during pregnancy, so it’s often recommended to avoid its use during this period. Similarly, for breastfeeding mothers, there’s insufficient evidence to confirm its safety, hence consulting a healthcare provider before use is crucial.

Can children safely consume Guggul?

As for children, there’s a lack of sufficient research to establish the safety of Guggul in this age group. Due to this uncertainty, it’s typically advisable to avoid giving Guggul to children without consulting a pediatrician or healthcare professional first. The potential impact on their developing bodies necessitates caution and expert guidance.

How should Guggul be prepared or consumed (e.g., tea, tincture, capsules, tablets)?

Guggul, a resin derived from the Commiphora mukul tree, is typically consumed in various forms. It’s commonly available in capsules, tablets, or powders for oral consumption. The resin can also be infused into teas or processed into tinctures for consumption. Capsules and tablets offer standardized doses, while teas and tinctures might vary in potency.

Are there any contraindications or health conditions that Guggul may worsen?

While Guggul is renowned for its therapeutic properties, there are potential contraindications. Individuals with hormone-sensitive conditions like breast cancer, uterine fibroids, or endometriosis should avoid its use as it may exacerbate these conditions due to its hormonal effects. Guggul may also interfere with certain medications like blood thinners or birth control pills.

Where is Guggul usually sourced or cultivated?

The primary source of Guggul is the arid regions of northern India, where the Commiphora mukul tree grows abundantly. Local farmers harvest the resin from the tree’s bark, processing it into various forms for commercial use. However, it’s also cultivated in some other regions with similar climates, including parts of Pakistan and Bangladesh.

In the United States, Guggul is legal to possess and use as a dietary supplement. It’s readily available in health food stores, pharmacies, and online retailers. However, the FDA does not regulate supplements as strictly as pharmaceuticals, so variations in quality and potency might exist among different brands.

Are there any known allergens in Guggul?

Guggul does not typically pose allergenic risks, but as with any substance, individual allergic reactions are possible. Some individuals might experience mild allergic reactions, although reports of such incidents are infrequent. However, it’s always wise to consult a healthcare professional before incorporating Guggul or any new supplement into your regimen, especially if there’s a history of allergies.

May Guggul supplements contain contaminants like pesticides or heavy metals?

Guggul supplements have undergone scrutiny for potential contaminants like pesticides or heavy metals. While quality varies among brands, reputable manufacturers conduct rigorous testing to ensure purity and safety. To mitigate risks, opting for products from trusted sources with quality certifications can minimize the likelihood of such contaminants.

Are there any known long-term effects of using Guggul?

Regarding the long-term effects of Guggul usage, research primarily focuses on its short-term benefits, such as cholesterol management and anti-inflammatory properties. Long-term studies assessing prolonged use are limited, making it challenging to definitively outline potential extended-term effects. However, consulting a healthcare professional before prolonged usage is advisable to monitor individual responses and potential interactions with other medications.

Do Guggul supplements have a specific shelf life or expiration date?

The shelf life and expiration date of Guggul supplements can vary based on formulation, storage conditions, and manufacturer specifications. Typically, reputable brands provide expiration dates on their packaging, indicating the product’s potency and safety within that timeframe. Adhering to these dates ensures optimal effectiveness, as expired supplements might lose potency or become less effective.

What is the best time of day to take Guggul?

Determining the best time to take Guggul can vary based on individual preferences and the reason for supplementation. Some suggest taking it in the morning to harness its potential metabolism-boosting properties, while others opt for evening consumption for its reported cholesterol-lowering effects. However, consulting a healthcare professional can provide tailored advice based on personal health goals and potential interactions.

Should Guggul pills be taken with food or on an empty stomach?

Taking Guggul with food or on an empty stomach depends on individual tolerance and product formulation. Some people prefer taking it with a meal to minimize potential stomach discomfort, while others find better absorption on an empty stomach. Experimenting with both methods and observing personal responses can help determine the most suitable approach. Nonetheless, consulting a healthcare provider is prudent to ensure optimal absorption and minimize any adverse effects.

Are there any dietary restrictions or guidelines while using Guggul?

Guggul doesn’t have stringent dietary restrictions. However, it’s suggested to take it with warm water or milk to aid absorption. Avoiding excessive spicy or oily foods may enhance its effectiveness.

The duration of Guggul use varies based on individual health needs. Typically, short-term use (up to 12 weeks) is recommended for specific health concerns like high cholesterol or arthritis. Long-term use may require medical guidance.

Is it advisable to consult a healthcare professional before using Guggul?

Consulting a healthcare professional before starting Guggul is advisable. They can evaluate potential interactions with medications or pre-existing conditions, ensuring its safe usage and effectiveness.

Are there any special precautions for storing Guggul supplements?

Storing Guggul supplements requires attention to humidity and temperature. Keep them in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight, to prevent degradation of its active compounds.

How does Guggul taste, and can it be mixed with other herbs or foods for palatability?

Guggul possesses a bitter taste profile. Mixing it with honey, ginger, or other herbs can mask its bitterness. Incorporating it into food or herbal formulations helps improve palatability without compromising its efficacy.

What other supplements work well together with Guggul?

Guggul, derived from the resin of the Commiphora wightii tree, is often used in traditional medicine for its potential health benefits. When combining Guggul with other supplements, it’s essential to consider your specific health goals and consult with a healthcare professional. Here are some supplements that may complement Guggul:

  • Fish Oil (Omega-3 Fatty Acids): Combining Guggul with fish oil supplements can provide comprehensive cardiovascular support. Both may contribute to maintaining healthy cholesterol levels and supporting heart health.
  • Turmeric (Curcumin): Guggul and Turmeric, specifically its active compound curcumin, have anti-inflammatory properties. Combining these supplements may offer enhanced support for joint health and overall well-being.
  • Ashwagandha: Guggul and Ashwagandha are adaptogenic herbs known for their potential to support the endocrine system. This combination may help manage stress, support thyroid function, and promote overall balance.
  • Triphala: Guggul and Triphala, a traditional Ayurvedic herbal formulation, can work together to support digestive health. They may help maintain a healthy weight and aid in detoxification.
  • Green Tea Extract: Both Guggul and Green Tea extract have antioxidant properties. Combining them may offer additional support for overall antioxidant defense and metabolic health.
  • Chromium: Guggul, when combined with chromium, may have potential benefits for maintaining healthy blood sugar levels. This combination is commonly used to support metabolic function.
  • Boswellia (Indian Frankincense): Guggul and Boswellia are resin-derived supplements that share anti-inflammatory properties. Together, they may provide comprehensive support for joint health and flexibility.
  • Vitamin D: Guggul combined with vitamin D may support bone health. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in calcium absorption, and Guggul may contribute to overall bone density.
  • Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10): Guggul, when paired with CoQ10 supplements, may benefit overall heart health. CoQ10 supports heart muscle function, and its combination with Guggul might offer additional cardiovascular support.

Always consult with a healthcare professional or a qualified herbalist before combining supplements, especially if you have any underlying health conditions, are on medications, or are pregnant or breastfeeding. 

Is there any scientific research or clinical evidence supporting Guggul’s effectiveness?

Scientific research on Guggul’s effectiveness is somewhat mixed. Some studies suggest its potential in lowering cholesterol and inflammation, attributed to its active compound, guggulsterones. However, more extensive, high-quality research is needed for conclusive evidence regarding its effectiveness in various health aspects.

Find the Best Guggul Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any age restrictions for using Guggul (e.g., suitable for the elderly)?

Age restrictions for Guggul aren’t firmly established. However, due to its potential interactions with certain medications and its effects on hormones, consulting a healthcare provider, especially for the elderly or those with pre-existing conditions, is advisable before incorporating it into their routine.

Does Guggul require a specific preparation method, such as decoction or infusion?

Guggul typically requires specific preparation methods, commonly used as an extract or in capsule form. Traditional methods involve extraction through a solvent, ensuring the concentration of active compounds. This extraction process is crucial for its effectiveness when consumed internally.

Can Guggul be used topically (externally) in addition to internal consumption?

While Guggul is primarily used internally, some traditional practices suggest its external application for skin issues or inflammation. However, its topical use isn’t as widely studied or supported by scientific evidence compared to its internal consumption. Patch tests and consulting a healthcare provider are advisable before using it externally.

Are there any known symptoms of overdose or excessive use of Guggul?

Excessive use or overdose of Guggul may lead to certain symptoms such as gastrointestinal discomfort, diarrhea, skin rash, or headaches. Higher doses can potentially interfere with hormonal balance, especially thyroid function, emphasizing the importance of adhering to recommended dosages and consulting healthcare professionals when in doubt or experiencing adverse effects.

What is Guggul’s mode of action within the body?

Guggul, derived from the Commiphora wightii tree resin, exerts its action primarily through its active compounds called guggulsterones. These substances influence various metabolic pathways in the body, particularly lipid metabolism. Guggulsterones are believed to stimulate the thyroid gland, enhancing the production of thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism. Additionally, they may influence certain enzymes involved in cholesterol synthesis, potentially reducing LDL (“bad”) cholesterol levels while increasing HDL (“good”) cholesterol.

Are there any known synergistic effects when Guggul is combined with specific nutrients?

Combining Guggul with specific nutrients might produce synergistic effects. For instance, when paired with antioxidants like vitamin E or selenium, Guggul’s lipid-lowering properties might be enhanced. Moreover, combining it with herbs like ginger or turmeric could potentially amplify its anti-inflammatory effects.

Does Guggul have a distinct aroma or essential oil that may have therapeutic benefits?

Guggul possesses a distinct aroma attributed to its essential oil. This oil contains compounds like myrcene and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, contributing to its unique scent. Some research suggests that the essential oil of Guggul possesses therapeutic benefits, including antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. It’s been used in aromatherapy for its purported calming effects and in topical applications for skin health.

Are there any cultural or historical uses of Guggul that should be considered?

Historically, Guggul has a rich cultural and medicinal heritage. It’s been a staple in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries, valued for its diverse therapeutic properties. Ancient texts praised its efficacy in treating various ailments, including obesity, arthritis, and skin disorders. It was also used as a remedy for digestive issues and as a rejuvenating tonic.

Does Guggul have any spiritual or ceremonial significance in certain traditions?

Within certain spiritual and ceremonial practices, Guggul holds significance. In Ayurveda, it’s revered for its association with purification and cleansing rituals. Its smoke has been used in religious ceremonies and meditation to create an atmosphere believed to enhance spiritual connections and clear negative energies, symbolizing the purification of the environment and the self.

Are there any variations in Guggul’s potency based on its geographic origin?

Variations in Guggul’s potency can indeed be influenced by its geographic origin. The resin extracted from the Commiphora mukul tree, native to India, contains varying concentrations of active compounds like guggulsterones. Factors such as soil composition, climate, and cultivation methods contribute to these differences. Research suggests that Guggul sourced from different regions may exhibit variations in its therapeutic effects due to varying concentrations of active compounds.

Does Guggul have a known effect on specific organs or body systems?

Guggul is renowned for its impact on specific organs and body systems. Primarily, it’s recognized for its positive effects on cholesterol levels. Guggulsterones, the bioactive compounds in Guggul, are believed to influence lipid metabolism, aiding in lowering LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Additionally, studies indicate its potential benefits for joint health due to its anti-inflammatory properties.

Are there any known interactions of Guggul with commonly prescribed medications?

Concerning interactions with medications, Guggul may interact with several commonly prescribed drugs. It has been reported to affect the metabolism of certain medications processed by the liver’s cytochrome P450 enzymes, altering their effectiveness. This interaction could potentially affect drugs like statins, blood thinners, and oral contraceptives, emphasizing the importance of consulting healthcare professionals before using Guggul alongside medications.

What are the potential benefits and risks of long-term or chronic use of Guggul?

The long-term use of Guggul presents both potential benefits and risks. Chronic consumption may offer sustained support for cholesterol management and joint health. However, prolonged use may also pose risks such as gastrointestinal disturbances and skin rashes. Some studies suggest possible concerns about its impact on thyroid function, warranting cautious and monitored long-term usage.

Is it advisable to cycle on and off Guggul to prevent tolerance or dependence?

Advising cycling on and off Guggul to prevent tolerance or dependence remains a debated topic. While some experts recommend cycling to prevent potential adaptation, evidence supporting Guggul’s dependence or tolerance is limited. Regular breaks in usage could potentially mitigate any adaptation, but more research is needed to establish clear guidelines on cycling Guggul for optimal effectiveness and safety. Consulting a healthcare provider for personalized advice is advisable.

Are there any precautions regarding driving or operating machinery while using Guggul?

Regarding Guggul, caution is advised when driving or operating machinery. While there isn’t explicit evidence indicating direct impairment caused by Guggul, its potential to lower blood pressure might induce dizziness or lightheadedness in some individuals. It’s recommended to gauge personal reactions to Guggul before engaging in activities requiring focus or alertness.

When using Guggul, there aren’t stringent dietary restrictions, but a balanced diet may complement its effects. Some studies suggest that consuming a diet rich in antioxidants and low in saturated fats may enhance the benefits of Guggul. Additionally, maintaining a healthy lifestyle through regular exercise can synergize with its effects on cholesterol and weight management.

Does Guggul have any specific recommendations for addressing common side effects?

Common side effects associated with Guggul, such as gastrointestinal disturbances or skin rashes, may subside with time or dosage adjustments. It’s advisable to start with a lower dose and gradually increase while monitoring for adverse reactions. If side effects persist or worsen, consulting a healthcare professional is recommended for tailored guidance.

Are there any known variations or subspecies of Guggul with different properties?

Guggul exhibits variations across species, with Commiphora mukul being the most commonly utilized. However, distinct species like Commiphora wightii may have nuanced differences in chemical composition and therapeutic properties. These variations might affect potency and efficacy, prompting varied outcomes in medicinal applications.

Does Guggul have any documented cases of misuse or abuse?

As for misuse or abuse of Guggul, documented cases are limited. Given its traditional use and availability as a supplement, abuse instances remain uncommon. However, it’s essential to adhere to recommended dosages as excessive intake may lead to adverse effects. Furthermore, combining Guggul with other medications or supplements without professional guidance could pose risks and should be avoided.

Is Guggul regulated or approved for medicinal use in the United States?

In the United States, Guggul isn’t regulated by the FDA for medicinal use. However, it’s available as a dietary supplement. The regulation for supplements differs from that of prescription drugs. Manufacturers must ensure their products are safe, labeled accurately, and in compliance with FDA regulations, but they don’t require FDA approval before being marketed.

Are there any known interactions of Guggul when combined with other medicinal herbs?

Guggul, when combined with certain medicinal herbs or drugs, may lead to interactions. It’s known to potentially interact with blood-thinning medications, enhancing their effects. Also, combining it with herbs like ginger or garlic might increase the risk of bleeding. Always consult a healthcare professional before mixing Guggul with other herbs or medications to prevent adverse reactions.

How does Guggul’s preparation or dosage change for acute versus chronic conditions?

The preparation and dosage of Guggul can vary based on the condition. For acute conditions, higher doses might be recommended initially, which could then be tapered down as the symptoms alleviate. Chronic conditions may require a consistent, lower dosage over an extended period. Tailoring the dosage to individual needs and conditions is vital and should be done under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Find the Best Guggul Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any known withdrawal symptoms when discontinuing the use of Guggul?

Regarding withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation, research on Guggul specifically is limited in this area. Generally, withdrawal symptoms tend to be associated with substances that have addictive properties or alter neurotransmitter functions. Guggul, as an herbal supplement, doesn’t typically induce dependency or addictive behavior. However, abruptly stopping any supplement might result in a transient period where the body adjusts to the absence of the substance. It’s advisable to gradually reduce the dosage rather than stop abruptly to minimize any potential discomfort during the adjustment phase.

What are the best supplement brands of Guggul?

Selecting the best Guggul supplement brand involves considering several factors such as sourcing, manufacturing practices, purity, and additional ingredients in the product. Brands like Himalaya, Nature’s Way, and Banyan Botanicals have gained recognition for their commitment to quality, employing rigorous testing procedures, using high-quality raw materials, and adhering to good manufacturing practices. However, individual preferences, tolerance, and specific health requirements can greatly influence the choice of the best brand, so it’s recommended to consult healthcare professionals for personalized recommendations.

Article References & Sources

At AncientHerbsWisdom, our content relies on reputable sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to substantiate the information presented in our articles. Our primary objective is to ensure our content is thoroughly fact-checked, maintaining a commitment to accuracy, reliability, and trustworthiness.

  1. Panda, S., & Kar, A. (2005). Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) potentially ameliorates hypothyroidism in female mice. Phytotherapy research: PTR, 19(1), 78–80. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1602 
  2. Natural Standard. (2014). Guggul [Monograph]. http://naturalstandard.com/databases/hw/all/patient-guggul.asp.
  3. Nohr, L. A., Rasmussen, L. B., & Straand, J. (2009). Resin from the mukul myrrh tree, guggul, can it be used for treating hypercholesterolemia? A randomized, controlled study. Complementary therapies in medicine, 17(1), 16–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2008.07.001 
  4. Mithila, M. V., & Khanum, F. (2014). The appetite regulatory effect of guggulsterones in rats: a repertoire of plasma hormones and neurotransmitters. Journal of dietary supplements, 11(3), 262–271. https://doi.org/10.3109/19390211.2014.937045 
  5. Sarup, P., Bala, S., & Kamboj, S. (2015). Pharmacology and Phytochemistry of Oleo-Gum Resin of Commiphora wightii (Guggulu). Scientifica, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/138039 
  6. Kunnumakkara, A. B., Banik, K., Bordoloi, D., Harsha, C., Sailo, B. L., Padmavathi, G., Roy, N. K., Gupta, S. C., & Aggarwal, B. B. (2018). Googling the Guggul (Commiphora and Boswellia) for Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00686 
  7. Huang, J., Frohlich, J., and Ignaszewski, A. P. The Impact of Dietary Changes and Dietary Supplements on Lipid Profile. Can.J.Cardiol. 2011;27(4):488-505
  8. Shields KM, Moranvillie MP. Guggul for Hypercholesterolemia. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2005; 62 (10): 1012-1014.
  9. Brobst, D. E., Ding, X., Creech, K. L., Goodwin, B., Kelley, B., & Staudinger, J. L. (2004). Guggulsterone activates multiple nuclear receptors and induces CYP3A gene expression through the pregnane X receptor. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 310(2), 528–535. https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.064329 
  10. Dogra J, Aneja N, Saxena V N. Oral gugulipid in acne vulgaris management. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1990;56:381-383
  11. Szapary PO, Wolfe ML, et al. Guggulipid for the Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA. 2003;290:765-772.
  12. Tripathi, Y. B., Malhotra, O. P., & Tripathi, S. N. (1984). Thyroid Stimulating Action of Z-Guggulsterone Obtained from Commiphora mukul. Planta medica, 50(1), 78–80. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-969626
  13. Das, S., Datta, A., Bagchi, C., Chakraborty, S., Mitra, A., & Tripathi, S. K. (2016). A Comparative Study of Lipid-Lowering Effects of Guggul and Atorvastatin Monotherapy in Comparison to Their Combination in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rabbits. Journal of dietary supplements, 13(5), 495–504. https://doi.org/10.3109/19390211.2015.1118654 
  14. Ulbricht C, Basch E, et al. Guggul for Hyperlipidemia: A Review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Complement Ther Med. 2005 Dec;13(4):279-90.
  15. Yang, J. Y., Della-Fera, M. A., & Baile, C. A. (2008). Guggulsterone inhibits adipocyte differentiation and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 cells. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 16(1), 16–22. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2007.24 
  16. Bhatt, A. D., Dalal, D. G., Shah, S. J., Joshi, B. A., Gajjar, M. N., Vaidya, R. A., Vaidya, A. B., & Antarkar, D. S. (1995). Conceptual and methodologic challenges of assessing the short-term efficacy of Guggulu in obesity: data emergent from a naturalistic clinical trial. Journal of postgraduate medicine, 41(1), 5–7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10740691/ 
  17. Szapary, P. O., Wolfe, M. L., Bloedon, L. T., Cucchiara, A. J., DerMarderosian, A. H., Cirigliano, M. D., & Rader, D. J. (2003). Guggulipid for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 290(6), 765–772. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.290.6.765 
  18. Sharma, B., Salunke, R., Srivastava, S., Majumder, C., & Roy, P. (2009). Effects of guggulsterone isolated from Commiphora mukul in high fat diet induced diabetic rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 47(10), 2631–2639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.07.021 
  19. Gum Guggul and Some of Its Steroidal Constituents – Review of Toxicological Literature, February 2005, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
  20. Dalvi, S. S., Nayak, V. K., Pohujani, S. M., Desai, N. K., Kshirsagar, N. A., & Gupta, K. C. (1994). Effect of gugulipid on bioavailability of diltiazem and propranolol. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 42(6), 454–455.  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7852226/ 

Valuable Resources