Maca Root Insights: Your 50 Essential Questions Answered

In the realm of natural health and wellness, Maca, a root native to the Andes region of South America, has garnered significant attention for its potential benefits. From energy-boosting properties to hormone regulation, Maca Root has become a popular supplement for those seeking holistic approaches to their well-being. In this article, we delve into a comprehensive set of 50 essential questions and answers, shedding light on this intriguing botanical’s diverse applications, uses, and potential impact on your health. 

Maca: 50 Questions & Answers

What is Maca Root?

Maca is a root vegetable native to the high-altitude regions of the Andes Mountains in South America, particularly Peru. It belongs to the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes broccoli, cauliflower, and kale. Maca has gained popularity worldwide for its potential health benefits and is often used as a dietary supplement.

What is the scientific name of Maca?

The scientific name of Maca is Lepidium meyenii. This name is used to specifically identify the plant within the scientific community, ensuring accurate classification and research.

Does Maca have other common names?

Yes, Maca has several common names, reflecting its historical and regional usage. It is often referred to as “Peruvian ginseng” due to its adaptogenic properties, which are similar to those attributed to ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine. Additionally, Maca is known by names like “maino,” “ayak chichira,” and “ayak willku” in the native Quechua language, reflecting its cultural significance in the Andean region.

What is Maca’s traditional and modern medicinal use?

Maca has a long history of traditional use among indigenous populations in the Andes for its perceived health benefits. Traditionally, it has been used to enhance energy, stamina, and libido. It was also believed to improve fertility and adaptability to high-altitude environments.

In modern times, Maca has gained popularity as a dietary supplement due to its potential health benefits. It is promoted for its alleged ability to boost energy, improve mood, enhance sexual function, and support hormonal balance. Some studies suggest that Maca may help with menopausal symptoms, although more research is needed to confirm its effectiveness for various health claims.

What nutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, etc.) does Maca contain?

Maca is nutritionally dense and contains a variety of essential nutrients. It is a good source of carbohydrates, fiber, and protein. Maca also provides essential vitamins and minerals, including vitamin C, copper, iron, potassium, and calcium. Moreover, Maca contains bioactive compounds such as glucosinolates and polyphenols, which have antioxidant properties. These nutrients contribute to Maca’s potential health benefits and its status as a superfood. However, it’s important to note that the nutrient composition can vary depending on the variety and processing of Maca.

Find the Best Maca Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any potential side effects associated with Maca?

Maca is generally considered safe when consumed in moderate amounts. However, like many natural supplements, it may cause some side effects in certain individuals. Common side effects include digestive issues like bloating or gas. Some people might also experience headaches or an increase in heart rate, although these effects are typically mild.

The recommended dosage for Maca can vary depending on the individual’s age, sex, and specific health goals. A general guideline for powdered Maca root is around 1,500 to 3,000 milligrams per day, which can be divided into two or three doses. However, it’s essential to start with a lower dose and gradually increase it to assess how your body responds. It’s also advisable to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized dosage recommendations.

Is Maca safe for pregnant or breastfeeding women?

While Maca is generally considered safe for most people, pregnant and breastfeeding women should exercise caution. There is limited research on the safety of Maca during pregnancy and lactation, so expectant or nursing mothers should consult with their healthcare provider before incorporating Maca into their diet.

Can children safely consume Maca?

Maca is not typically recommended for children, primarily due to the lack of extensive research on its effects on pediatric populations. It’s best to err on the side of caution and avoid giving Maca supplements or products to children unless advised otherwise by a healthcare professional.

How should Maca be prepared or consumed (e.g., tea, tincture, capsules, tablets)?

Maca is available in various forms, including powder, capsules, tablets, and tinctures. The choice of preparation largely depends on personal preference. Many people prefer mixing Maca powder into smoothies, yogurt, or oatmeal for easy consumption. Capsules or tablets offer a convenient option for those who don’t like the taste of Maca. Tinctures can be added to beverages or taken sublingually (under the tongue). Regardless of the form chosen, it’s essential to follow the recommended dosage guidelines and start with a lower amount to assess tolerance and effects.

Are there any contraindications or health conditions that Maca may worsen?

Maca is generally considered safe for most people when consumed in moderate amounts. However, individuals with certain health conditions, such as thyroid disorders or hormone-sensitive conditions like breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or uterine fibroids, should exercise caution when using Maca. It may potentially interfere with these conditions due to its hormonal effects. If you have any pre-existing health concerns, it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before adding Maca to your regimen.

Where is Maca usually sourced or cultivated?

Maca, scientifically known as Lepidium meyenii, is primarily cultivated in the high-altitude regions of the Andes mountains in Peru. It has been grown there for thousands of years and is considered a traditional staple in Peruvian cuisine and medicine. Maca thrives in the harsh climate of these high-altitude areas, making it well-suited to the unique conditions of the Andes.

Yes, Maca is legal to possess and use in the United States. It is classified as a dietary supplement and is widely available in various forms, including capsules, powders, and extracts. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate Maca as a drug, but it is subject to regulations governing dietary supplements. It’s essential to purchase Maca products from reputable sources to ensure their safety and quality.

Are there any known allergens in Maca?

Maca is generally considered safe for most people and is not known to be a common allergen. However, like any food or supplement, some individuals may have allergies or sensitivities to Maca. If you have a known sensitivity to cruciferous vegetables, which Maca is related to, you should exercise caution when trying Maca for the first time and consult with a healthcare professional if you have concerns.

May Maca supplements contain contaminants like pesticides or heavy metals?

Yes, there is a possibility that Maca supplements can contain contaminants like pesticides or heavy metals, depending on the source and quality of the product. To mitigate this risk, it’s crucial to choose Maca supplements from reputable manufacturers who conduct rigorous quality control and testing procedures. Look for products that are certified organic and have undergone third-party testing to ensure they meet safety standards.

Are there any known long-term effects of using Maca?

Research on the long-term effects of using Maca is limited, as it has gained popularity as a dietary supplement relatively recently. Short-term use of Maca is generally considered safe for most people when taken within recommended dosages. However, if you plan to use Maca regularly or for an extended period, it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional to monitor your health and assess any potential long-term effects, especially if you have underlying health conditions or are taking other medications.

Do Maca supplements have a specific shelf life or expiration date?

Maca supplements typically come with a specific shelf life or expiration date, which you can find on the product’s packaging. It’s essential to adhere to these dates for optimal potency and safety. Consuming Maca products past their expiration date may result in decreased effectiveness, so always check and follow the manufacturer’s recommendations.

What is the best time of day to take Maca?

The best time to take Maca largely depends on your personal preference and how it affects your energy levels. Many people find that taking it in the morning helps boost their energy throughout the day. However, others prefer taking it later in the day to avoid potential insomnia. It’s a good practice to start with a smaller dose and monitor how your body responds to determine the best time for you.

Should Maca pills be taken with food or on an empty stomach?

Maca pills can typically be taken with or without food. Some individuals may experience mild stomach discomfort when taking Maca on an empty stomach, so having it with a meal can help mitigate this issue. However, if you have a sensitive stomach, you might prefer taking it with food to prevent any potential digestive discomfort.

Are there any dietary restrictions or guidelines while using Maca?

While there are no strict dietary restrictions when using Maca, it’s a good idea to maintain a balanced diet to support overall health. Maca is often considered safe when used in moderation. However, excessive consumption may lead to digestive issues or hormonal imbalances. It’s advisable not to rely solely on Maca as a dietary solution and to continue consuming a well-rounded diet.

The recommended duration of using Maca can vary depending on your specific health goals and individual response. Some people use it for a few weeks to address specific issues, while others incorporate it into their daily routine for more extended periods. It’s crucial to listen to your body and consult with a healthcare professional for personalized guidance, especially if you plan to use Maca for an extended period. Regular breaks from Maca supplementation may also be beneficial to prevent potential tolerance buildup.

Is it advisable to consult a healthcare professional before using Maca?

Consulting a healthcare professional before using Maca is generally advisable, especially if you have preexisting health conditions or are taking medications. While Maca is considered safe for most people, it’s essential to ensure it won’t interact negatively with your specific circumstances.

Are there any special precautions for storing Maca supplements?

Storing Maca supplements properly is crucial to maintain their freshness and potency. To do this, keep them in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight and moisture. Resealing the container tightly after each use will help prevent air and moisture from degrading the product.

How does Maca taste, and can it be mixed with other herbs or foods for palatability?

Maca has a unique flavor that is often described as earthy and nutty. Some find it enjoyable on its own, while others may prefer mixing it with other foods or beverages. It can be blended into smoothies, added to oatmeal, or even incorporated into baked goods to improve palatability.

What other supplements work well together with Maca?

Maca is a versatile supplement that can be combined with various other supplements to enhance its benefits, depending on your specific health and wellness goals. Here are some supplements that work well when paired with Maca:

  • Ashwagandha: Combining Maca with Ashwagandha can be beneficial for managing stress, increasing energy levels, and improving overall well-being. These adaptogenic herbs complement each other effectively.
  • Rhodiola Rosea: Maca and Rhodiola Rosea are both adaptogens known for their energy-boosting properties. Together, they can enhance stamina and reduce fatigue.
  • Ginseng (Panax or Siberian): Maca and Ginseng, whether Panax or Siberian, are often combined to increase vitality, boost energy, and support physical performance. This combination is popular among athletes and active individuals.
  • L-Arginine: Maca and L-Arginine can be a powerful combination for improving sexual health and addressing issues like low libido or erectile dysfunction. These supplements may promote enhanced blood flow and sexual function.
  • Tribulus Terrestris: Combining Maca with Tribulus can be beneficial for supporting hormonal balance and increasing libido. This combination is often used as a natural remedy for sexual health.
  • Vitamin D: Vitamin D and Maca can work together to support bone health and overall well-being. Maca’s nutritional profile, combined with the bone-strengthening properties of vitamin D, can be a valuable partnership.
  • Black Maca with Red Maca: If you’re interested in the potential gender-specific benefits of Maca, combining black Maca with red Maca can offer a comprehensive approach. Black Maca is believed to support male health, while red Maca is often associated with female health benefits.

Is there any scientific research or clinical evidence supporting Maca’s effectiveness?

Scientific research on Maca’s effectiveness is ongoing, and there is some evidence to support its potential health benefits. Maca is known for its adaptogenic properties, which may help the body adapt to stress. It’s also believed to support hormonal balance and energy levels. However, more extensive clinical studies are needed to fully understand its mechanisms and potential therapeutic applications. As with any supplement, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using Maca for specific health concerns.

Find the Best Maca Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any age restrictions for using Maca (e.g., suitable for the elderly)?

There are no specific age restrictions for using Maca. It is generally considered safe for people of all ages, including the elderly. However, it’s essential to start with a lower dose and monitor for any adverse effects, especially if you are introducing it into your diet for the first time.

Does Maca require a specific preparation method, such as decoction or infusion?

Maca can be consumed in various ways, and there is no specific preparation method that is required. It can be eaten raw, cooked, or even blended into smoothies. Some people prefer to make Maca tea by steeping the dried root in hot water, similar to an infusion, but this is a matter of personal preference.

Can Maca be used topically (externally) in addition to internal consumption?

While Maca is primarily consumed internally, there is a growing trend of using it topically. Maca-infused creams and lotions are available and may offer potential benefits for the skin. However, it’s essential to consult with a dermatologist or skincare expert before applying Maca topically to ensure it suits your skin type.

Are there any known symptoms of overdose or excessive use of Maca?

There are no well-documented symptoms of overdose or excessive use of Maca. However, like any supplement or food, consuming Maca in excessive amounts may lead to digestive discomfort, such as bloating or gas. It’s advisable to stick to recommended serving sizes and consult a healthcare professional if you experience any adverse reactions.

What is Maca’s mode of action within the body?

Maca’s mode of action in the body is a complex interplay of its bioactive compounds. It is believed to support hormone balance by influencing the endocrine system, specifically the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Maca may also enhance energy, stamina, and libido due to its adaptogenic properties, helping the body adapt to stressors. Additionally, its rich nutrient profile contributes to overall well-being. However, further scientific research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms behind these effects.

Are there any known synergistic effects when Maca is combined with specific nutrients?

When Maca is combined with specific nutrients, there can be potential synergistic effects. For example, it’s often paired with other adaptogens like Ashwagandha or Ginseng to enhance its adaptogenic properties. Additionally, combining Maca with vitamin C-rich foods can improve its absorption due to its iron content.

Does Maca have a distinct aroma or essential oil that may have therapeutic benefits?

Maca does have a distinct aroma, which is earthy and nutty. While its aroma alone doesn’t have therapeutic benefits, some suggest that the scent of Maca may have a subtle mood-enhancing effect, contributing to its overall appeal.

Are there any cultural or historical uses of Maca that should be considered?

Maca has a rich cultural and historical significance in the Andean region of South America, particularly in Peru. It has been cultivated and consumed for thousands of years by indigenous people, who believed it to have various health benefits. It was even used by Inca warriors to boost stamina and strength before battles.

Does Maca have any spiritual or ceremonial significance in certain traditions?

Yes, Maca holds spiritual and ceremonial significance in certain traditions of the Andes. In Peruvian culture, it’s often considered a sacred plant and used in rituals, especially during important agricultural events like planting and harvesting. It’s also associated with fertility and is used in marriage ceremonies.

Are there any variations in Maca’s potency based on its geographic origin?

Maca’s potency can vary based on its geographic origin and the specific variety of Maca. In general, the highest quality Maca is traditionally grown in the high-altitude regions of the Peruvian Andes. Different colors of Maca (yellow, red, black) may also have slightly different nutrient profiles and effects, so choosing the right one depends on individual needs and preferences.

Does Maca have a known effect on specific organs or body systems?

Maca, scientifically known as Lepidium meyenii, is renowned for its adaptogenic properties, which means it may have a balancing effect on various body systems rather than targeting specific organs. It’s often associated with improving energy levels, stamina, and endurance, potentially benefiting the overall vitality of the body. Moreover, Maca has been linked to enhanced sexual function and hormonal regulation, primarily affecting the reproductive system. However, its impact on organs is more indirect, driven by its ability to support hormonal balance and overall well-being.

Are there any known interactions of Maca with commonly prescribed medications?

As of my last knowledge update in September 2021, there were no widely reported interactions between Maca and commonly prescribed medications. Nevertheless, it’s essential to exercise caution and consult with a healthcare professional, especially if you are taking specific medications for conditions like hormonal imbalances or thyroid disorders. While Maca is generally considered safe, individual responses may vary, and it’s wise to ensure compatibility with your medication regimen.

What are the potential benefits and risks of long-term or chronic use of Maca?

Long-term use of Maca may offer various potential benefits, including increased energy, improved mood, and enhanced sexual function. However, there’s limited research on the risks of extended usage. Some concerns may include gastrointestinal discomfort or hormonal imbalances in rare cases. It’s advisable to use Maca in moderation and under the guidance of a healthcare professional for extended periods to monitor its effects on your body and adjust the dosage if necessary.

Is it advisable to cycle on and off Maca to prevent tolerance or dependence?

Cycling on and off Maca is a common practice for some individuals to prevent potential tolerance or dependence. It allows your body to maintain sensitivity to its effects. Cycling typically involves taking Maca for several weeks and then discontinuing its use for an equal or longer duration. This approach may help optimize the benefits of Maca over the long term and prevent your body from becoming too accustomed to its effects.

Are there any precautions regarding driving or operating machinery while using Maca?

There are no known adverse effects of Maca that would impair your ability to drive or operate machinery. Maca is not associated with drowsiness, dizziness, or cognitive impairment. However, individual reactions can vary, so it’s advisable to assess how Maca affects you personally before engaging in activities that require full attention and focus, especially when starting its use or adjusting the dosage. Always prioritize safety when trying any new supplement.

While using Maca, there are no specific dietary restrictions, but it’s advisable to maintain a balanced diet. Incorporating Maca into your daily routine can complement a healthy lifestyle. However, if you have specific dietary concerns or allergies, it’s recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before adding Maca to your regimen.

Does Maca have any specific recommendations for addressing common side effects?

Maca is generally considered safe, with limited reported side effects. However, some individuals may experience minor side effects like digestive issues or mild headaches. To address these, it’s advisable to start with a lower dosage and gradually increase it over time. Drinking plenty of water and consuming Maca with food can also help minimize any discomfort.

Are there any known variations or subspecies of Maca with different properties?

Maca (Lepidium meyenii) primarily comes in three main variations based on root color: yellow, red, and black. Each color is believed to offer slightly different benefits. Yellow Maca is considered the most common and is often used for overall health and vitality. Red Maca is believed to support reproductive health, while Black Maca is thought to enhance energy and endurance. These variations are attributed to differences in nutrient profiles and phytochemicals.

Does Maca have any documented cases of misuse or abuse?

Maca does not have documented cases of misuse or abuse. It is generally recognized as safe when used as recommended. However, like with any supplement or herb, it’s essential to adhere to recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare professional if you have underlying health conditions or concerns.

Is Maca regulated or approved for medicinal use in the United States?

Maca is not regulated as a medicine by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is classified as a dietary supplement, and its sale and marketing are subject to FDA regulations for supplements. While Maca has a long history of traditional use and is generally considered safe, it is not approved by the FDA to treat or prevent specific medical conditions. It’s important to purchase Maca products from reputable sources to ensure their quality and purity. Consult with a healthcare provider before using Maca for medicinal purposes, especially if you have any preexisting health conditions or are taking medications.

Are there any known interactions of Maca when combined with other medicinal herbs?

While there are no well-documented interactions between Maca and other medicinal herbs, it’s always prudent to exercise caution when combining supplements or herbs. Maca is typically safe when used alone, but if you’re taking multiple herbs or supplements concurrently, consult a healthcare provider or herbalist to ensure they won’t interact negatively.

How does Maca’s preparation or dosage change for acute versus chronic conditions?

The preparation and dosage of Maca can vary depending on whether you’re addressing acute or chronic conditions. For acute conditions, such as low energy or fatigue, a smaller dosage of Maca (around 1-2 grams per day) may be sufficient. In contrast, chronic conditions like hormonal imbalances or menopausal symptoms might require a higher daily dosage, typically ranging from 2-5 grams. Start with a lower dose and gradually increase it while monitoring how your body responds.

Find the Best Maca Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any known withdrawal symptoms when discontinuing the use of Maca?

There are no documented withdrawal symptoms associated with discontinuing the use of Maca. It’s not habit-forming, and your body should not become dependent on it. If you decide to stop taking Maca, you can simply taper off your dosage over a few days or weeks, depending on your comfort level.

What are the best supplement brands of Maca?

Recommending specific supplement brands can be challenging because product quality and availability can vary by location and time. However, look for reputable brands that provide clear information about the source, processing methods, and ingredients of their Maca Root supplements. It’s often wise to choose organic, non-GMO options, and consider seeking recommendations from trusted healthcare professionals or consulting user reviews to help you make an informed decision. Popular brands like Gaia Herbs, Navitas Organics, and Healthworks often receive positive reviews for their Maca products, but it’s crucial to research and select a brand that aligns with your individual needs and preferences.

Article References & Sources

At AncientHerbsWisdom, our content relies on reputable sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to substantiate the information presented in our articles. Our primary objective is to ensure our content is thoroughly fact-checked, maintaining a commitment to accuracy, reliability, and trustworthiness.

  1. Shin BC, Lee MS, Yang EJ, Lim HS, Ernst E. Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010;10:44. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-44
  2. Honma A, et al. (2022). The improvement of daily fatigue in women following the intake of maca (Lepidium meyenii) extract containing benzyl glucosinolate. 
  3. Beharry S, Heinrich M. Is the hype around the reproductive health claims of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) justified? J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;211:126-170. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2017.08.003
  4. Maca. (2022). 
  5. Ley BM. Maca! Adaptogen and Hormonal Regulator. Minneapolis, MN: BL Publications
  6. Johnson A, et al. (2019). Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Menopause. 
  7. Meissner HO, Mscisz A, Mrozikiewicz M, et al. Peruvian maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) phytochemical and genetic differences in three maca phenotypes. Int J Biomed Sci. 2015;11(3):131-145
  8. Johnson-Arbor K, et al. (2018). Unintentional and Sequential Lead Exposure from a Ceramic Mug and Maca (Lepidium meyenii). 
  9. LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2012-. Maca.
  10. Nuñez D, et al. (2017). Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands, Promotes Skin Wound Healing at Sea Level and at High Altitude in Adult Male Mice. 
  11. Dording CM, Schettler PJ, Dalton ED, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of maca root as treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in women. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:949036. doi:10.1155/2015/949036
  12. Sahin N, et al. (2021). Effects of maca (Lepidium meyenii) on nutrient digestibility and major nutrient transporters in rats fed a high‐fat diet. 
  13. Alcalde AM, Rabasa J. Does Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improve seminal quality? Andrologia. 2020;52(10):e13755. doi:10.1111/and.13755
  14. Vásquez-Velásquez C, et al. (2020). Inflammatory pathway employed by Red Maca to treat induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats. 
  15. Oshima M, Gu Y, Tsukada S. Effects of Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatropha macrantha on blood levels of estradiol-17 beta, progesterone, testosterone and the rate of embryo implantation in mice. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65(10):1145-1146. doi:10.1292/jvms.65.1145
  16. Yang J, et al. (2023). 
  17. Esparza E, Hadzich A, Kofer W, et al. Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices. Phytochemistry. 2015;116:138-148. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.02.030
  18. Zhang Y, et al. (2019). Effects of combined extracts of Lepidium meyenii and Allium tuberosum Rottl. on erectile dysfunction. 
  19. Guo S, et al. (2016). Preservation of Cognitive Function by Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Is Associated with Improvement of Mitochondrial Activity and Upregulation of Autophagy-Related Proteins in Middle-Aged Mouse Cortex. 
  20. Zhu H, et al. (2022). Deciphering the potential role of Maca compounds prescription influencing gut microbiota in the management of exercise-induced fatigue by integrative genomic analysis. 
  21. Srikugan L, Sankaralingam A, McGowan B. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii). BMJ Case Rep. 2011;2011:bcr0120113781. doi:10.1136/bcr.01.2011.3781
  22. Zhu H, et al. (2021). Anti-fatigue effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Maca) on preventing mitochondria-mediated muscle damage and oxidative stress in vivo and vitro. 
  23. Corazza O, Martinotti G, Santacroce R, et al. Sexual enhancement products for sale online: raising awareness of the psychoactive effects of yohimbine, maca, horny goat weed, and Ginkgo biloba. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:841798. doi:10.1155/2014/841798
  24. Alcalde AA, et al. (2020). Does Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improve seminal quality? 
  25. Melnikovova I, Fait T, Kolarova M, Fernandez EC, Milella L. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:324369. doi:10.1155/2015/324369
  26. Behary S, et al. (2017). Is the hype around the reproductive health claims of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) justified?
  27. Zenico T, Cicero AFG, Valmorri L, Mercuriali M, Bercovich E.  Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.  Andrologia.2009;41(2):95-99.  doi:10.1111/j.1439-0272.2008.00892.x
  28. Bower-Cargill C, et al. (2022). A systematic review of the versatile effects of the Peruvian Maca Root (Lepidium meyenii ) on sexual dysfunction, menopausal symptoms and related conditions. 
  29. Gonzales-Arimborgo C, et al. (2016). Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. 
  30. da Silva Leitão Peres N, et al. (2020). Medicinal effects of Peruvian maca (Lepidium meyenii): a review. 
  31. Gonzales GF. Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a plant from the Peruvian highlands. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:193496. doi:10.1155/2012/193496
  32. Dording CM, et al. (2015). A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Maca Root as Treatment for Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Women. 

Valuable Resources