Unveiling Yarrow: A Comprehensive Guide Through 50 Questions

Yarrow is an ancient herb steeped in history and medicinal prowess. In this comprehensive guide, discover answers to 50 intriguing questions about Yarrow, unraveling its diverse uses, cultural significance, and health benefits. From its varied names to the best ways to incorporate it into daily wellness routines, embark on a journey through the depths of this versatile botanical marvel.

Yarrow: 50 Questions & Answers

What is Yarrow?

Yarrow is a perennial herbaceous plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. This versatile herb is native to regions of Europe and Asia but has spread widely across North America and other parts of the world. Known for its feathery leaves and clusters of small, tightly packed flowers, yarrow has a rich history in both traditional and modern herbal medicine.

What is the scientific name of Yarrow?

The scientific name for yarrow is Achillea millefolium, derived from the Greek hero Achilles, who supposedly used the herb to treat battlefield wounds during the Trojan War. Its species name, millefolium, translates to “thousand leaves,” referring to the finely divided leaves that resemble delicate ferns.

Does Yarrow have other common names?

Yarrow, a versatile herb, is known by various names across different regions and cultures. Among its common alternative names are Soldier’s Woundwort, Nosebleed plant, Thousand-leaf, and Milfoil. These names stem from its historical uses in treating wounds on battlefields, stopping nosebleeds, and its feathery, finely divided leaves.

What is Yarrow’s traditional and modern medicinal use?

Yarrow has a long history of use in traditional medicine across cultures. Historically, it was employed to staunch bleeding wounds, aid in digestion, and alleviate various ailments, including colds, fevers, and menstrual issues. In modern herbal medicine, yarrow is still valued for its medicinal properties. It’s used in teas, tinctures, and topical applications for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and astringent properties. It’s often used to promote wound healing, reduce inflammation, and alleviate digestive discomfort.

What nutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, etc.) does Yarrow contain?

Yarrow contains various beneficial compounds, including flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, tannins, and volatile oils. These constituents contribute to its medicinal properties. It’s a source of vitamins such as vitamin C and vitamin K, along with minerals like potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Additionally, its flavonoids act as antioxidants, providing potential health benefits by combating oxidative stress in the body.

Find the Best Yarrow Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any potential side effects associated with Yarrow?

Yarrow, generally regarded as safe, may trigger allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Some might experience skin irritation when in contact with yarrow. Additionally, high doses or prolonged use could lead to digestive issues like nausea or vomiting. Those allergic to plants in the Asteraceae/Compositae family may have heightened sensitivity to yarrow.

Yarrow dosage varies based on its form and purpose. For tea, 1-2 teaspoons of dried yarrow per cup of boiling water is typical, and steeped for 5-10 minutes. Tinctures might suggest 30-60 drops diluted in water, taken up to 3 times daily. However, consulting with an herbalist or healthcare provider is wise for accurate dosage, considering individual health conditions and other medications.

Is Yarrow safe for pregnant or breastfeeding women?

Pregnant or breastfeeding women should exercise caution with yarrow due to its potential effects. Some herbalists advise against its use in pregnancy as it could stimulate the uterus and potentially lead to complications. Limited studies exist on yarrow’s impact during breastfeeding, hence prudence is essential. Consulting a healthcare provider before use is strongly recommended.

Can children safely consume Yarrow?

Usage of yarrow in children requires careful consideration and professional guidance. In certain circumstances and at appropriate dosages, it may be considered safe. However, due to limited research on pediatric use, seeking advice from a healthcare provider or pediatric herbalist becomes crucial before administering yarrow to children.

How should Yarrow be prepared or consumed (e.g., tea, tincture, capsules, tablets)?

Yarrow offers various consumption methods. Tea, perhaps the most common, involves steeping dried yarrow in hot water. Tinctures, extracted in alcohol or vinegar, are another option, allowing for easy dosage control. Capsules and tablets offer convenience, providing standardized doses. The method chosen often depends on personal preference and intended use, but it’s wise to follow recommended guidelines and seek professional advice for accurate consumption.

Are there any contraindications or health conditions that Yarrow may worsen?

Yarrow, while generally considered safe for most people, can potentially worsen certain health conditions or interact with specific medications. Its blood-thinning properties might exacerbate bleeding disorders or interact unfavorably with blood-thinning medications like warfarin. Individuals allergic to plants in the Asteraceae family (such as ragweed or marigolds) might experience allergic reactions to yarrow.

Where is Yarrow usually sourced or cultivated?

Yarrow is a hardy plant in various regions worldwide, including Europe, Asia, and North America. It thrives in dry, sunny conditions and is often cultivated in gardens or harvested from the wild for its medicinal properties.

In the United States, Yarrow is legal to possess and use for personal purposes. It’s not a regulated substance, and it’s commonly available in various forms like teas, extracts, or capsules. However, always ensure you’re using it responsibly and following recommended dosages.

Are there any known allergens in Yarrow?

Allergic reactions to yarrow are rare, but they can occur, particularly in individuals sensitive to plants in the Asteraceae family. Symptoms may include skin rashes, itching, or respiratory issues. Those with known allergies should exercise caution or avoid yarrow.

May Yarrow supplements contain contaminants like pesticides or heavy metals?

Like many plants, yarrow can potentially accumulate pesticides or heavy metals from its growing environment. To mitigate this risk, opting for reputable brands that conduct rigorous quality testing and sourcing yarrow from reliable suppliers is advisable. Third-party testing for purity and quality can ensure that supplements are free from contaminants, providing a safer option for consumption.

Are there any known long-term effects of using Yarrow?

Yarrow, commonly used in traditional medicine, hasn’t been extensively studied for long-term effects. While it’s generally regarded as safe, prolonged use might lead to potential issues for some individuals. Possible concerns could include skin sensitivity with prolonged topical application or digestive discomfort if taken excessively internally. However, concrete evidence on these long-term effects is limited, requiring more research for conclusive results.

Do Yarrow supplements have a specific shelf life or expiration date?

Like other herbal products, Yarrow supplements usually come with a recommended shelf life or expiration date. Proper storage, such as keeping them in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight, can help maintain their potency and effectiveness. Typically, it’s advisable to adhere to the expiration date to ensure optimal benefits and potency.

What is the best time of day to take Yarrow?

The ideal time to take Yarrow depends on the purpose of consumption. If used for digestive issues or to promote relaxation, taking it in the evening might be beneficial due to its calming properties. Conversely, for stimulating effects or addressing certain ailments during the day, morning ingestion might be preferred. It’s advisable to consult a healthcare professional for personalized guidance.

Should Yarrow pills be taken with food or on an empty stomach?

Yarrow pills can be taken with or without food based on personal tolerance and preference. Taking them with a meal might help mitigate any potential stomach upset for some individuals, while others might find it equally effective on an empty stomach. Experimenting to see what works best for one’s body is often recommended, but consulting a healthcare provider for tailored advice is wise.

Are there any dietary restrictions or guidelines while using Yarrow?

Yarrow, a herb known for its medicinal properties, doesn’t typically come with stringent dietary restrictions. However, individuals allergic to plants in the Asteraceae family might experience adverse reactions to yarrow. These individuals should avoid its consumption or consult a healthcare professional before use. Moreover, pregnant or breastfeeding women should also seek medical advice before incorporating yarrow into their diet due to its potential effects on pregnancy.

Regarding the duration of use, there’s no universally prescribed timeline for consuming yarrow. Short-term use is generally considered safe for addressing specific health concerns like digestive issues or menstrual discomfort. However, prolonged use without medical guidance might lead to adverse effects. It’s advisable to follow specific product instructions or seek advice from a healthcare provider to determine an appropriate duration for individual needs.

Is it advisable to consult a healthcare professional before using Yarrow?

Consulting a healthcare professional before using Yarrow is often recommended, especially for those with existing medical conditions or individuals taking medications. Yarrow might interact with certain medications like blood thinners or sedatives, potentially amplifying their effects. This consultation ensures safety and helps navigate potential interactions or complications.

Are there any special precautions for storing Yarrow supplements?

Proper storage is crucial to maintain the potency and quality of yarrow supplements. Storing them in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight is ideal. Airtight containers or amber-colored glass bottles can help preserve its potency by shielding it from moisture and light.

How does Yarrow taste, and can it be mixed with other herbs or foods for palatability?

Yarrow has a bitter, slightly astringent taste that might not be palatable to everyone. However, it can be blended with other herbs or incorporated into foods and beverages to improve taste. Mixing it with sweeter herbs like peppermint or chamomile can balance its bitterness. It can also be brewed into teas or added to soups for a more subtle flavor integration.

What other supplements work well together with Yarrow?

Yarrow, known for its diverse health benefits, can complement various supplements to enhance overall wellness. Here are some supplements that work well in combination with Yarrow:

  • Chamomile: Pairing Yarrow with Chamomile can create a potent blend for digestive health. Both herbs are gentle on the stomach and can aid in soothing digestive discomfort.
  • Echinacea: Combining Yarrow with Echinacea can bolster the immune system. Together, they may provide a synergistic effect, supporting the body’s natural defense mechanisms.
  • Peppermint: Yarrow and Peppermint can be a great duo for digestive support. Peppermint‘s soothing properties, combined with Yarrow’s potential digestive benefits, may alleviate occasional discomfort.
  • Lavender: Yarrow and Lavender complement each other well for relaxation and stress relief. Both herbs have calming properties that can promote a sense of tranquility and mental well-being.
  • Elderberry: Pairing Yarrow with Elderberry can create a robust immune-supporting combination. Elderberry’s immune-boosting properties may work in conjunction with Yarrow’s potential benefits for overall health.
  • Nettle: Yarrow and Nettle can be combined to support general wellness. Nettle’s potential for promoting a healthy inflammatory response, combined with Yarrow’s diverse properties, can offer a holistic approach to well-being.
  • Valerian Root: Yarrow and Valerian Root may work synergistically to promote relaxation and improve sleep quality. Together, they can support a calm and restful state.

Is there any scientific research or clinical evidence supporting Yarrow’s effectiveness?

Scientific research and clinical studies have indicated promising aspects of Yarrow’s effectiveness. Its traditional use as a medicinal herb has been supported by various studies. Yarrow contains compounds like flavonoids and sesquiterpene lactones, known for their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Research suggests its potential in wound healing, gastrointestinal issues, and even as an anti-inflammatory agent. However, more comprehensive studies are needed to validate its efficacy across various health concerns.

Find the Best Yarrow Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any age restrictions for using Yarrow (e.g., suitable for the elderly)?

Yarrow is generally considered safe for all age groups, including the elderly when used in appropriate quantities. Nonetheless, pregnant or breastfeeding individuals and those with pre-existing medical conditions should consult healthcare professionals before incorporating it into their routine. Like any herbal supplement, moderation, and professional guidance are key, especially for vulnerable populations.

Does Yarrow require a specific preparation method, such as decoction or infusion?

Yarrow can be prepared in different ways, such as decoction or infusion, depending on the intended use. For teas or infusions, pouring boiling water over the dried or fresh yarrow and allowing it to steep for a specific duration is common. Decoctions involve simmering the herb in water for a longer period. The preparation method may affect the potency and concentration of beneficial compounds extracted.

Can Yarrow be used topically (externally) in addition to internal consumption?

Yes, Yarrow can be used topically and internally. Externally, it’s known for its potential to aid in wound healing, reduce inflammation, and alleviate skin conditions like eczema. Topical application might involve creating a poultice or using yarrow-infused oils or creams. Internally, it’s commonly consumed as a tea or in supplement form to address various health issues.

Are there any known symptoms of overdose or excessive use of Yarrow?

Excessive use of Yarrow may lead to certain adverse effects. High doses could potentially cause symptoms like nausea, vomiting, dizziness, or skin reactions in sensitive individuals. Overconsumption or prolonged use beyond recommended doses might also interact with certain medications or exacerbate pre-existing conditions. It’s crucial to adhere to suggested dosages and seek medical advice if any unusual symptoms occur.

What is Yarrow’s mode of action within the body?

Yarrow, scientifically known as Achillea millefolium, exhibits various actions within the body. Its mode of action primarily involves anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Yarrow contains compounds like flavonoids and sesquiterpene lactones that contribute to its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting certain inflammatory pathways. Additionally, its antioxidant activity helps neutralize free radicals, reducing oxidative stress and potentially benefiting overall health.

Are there any known synergistic effects when Yarrow is combined with specific nutrients?

Combining Yarrow with specific nutrients or herbs might result in synergistic effects. For instance, pairing it with echinacea or elderflower could enhance its immune-boosting properties due to their complementary actions. However, more research is needed to establish and understand these synergies fully.

Does Yarrow have a distinct aroma or essential oil that may have therapeutic benefits?

Yarrow possesses a distinct aroma, characterized as slightly sweet and herbaceous. Its essential oil, extracted from the plant’s flowers, contains compounds like camphor, chamazulene, and borneol, which are believed to offer therapeutic benefits. This oil is utilized in aromatherapy for its calming and anti-inflammatory properties, often used in massage oils or diffusers for relaxation and skin conditions.

Are there any cultural or historical uses of Yarrow that should be considered?

Yarrow has a rich historical and cultural significance. It has been utilized for centuries in traditional medicine across various cultures, including Native American, European, and Chinese herbal traditions. Its uses span from treating wounds on battlefields (earning it the name “soldier’s woundwort”) to addressing digestive issues, menstrual problems, and more.

Does Yarrow have any spiritual or ceremonial significance in certain traditions?

Yarrow holds considerable spiritual and ceremonial significance in various traditions globally. In Chinese tradition, it’s used for divination and casting the I Ching. Native American tribes view it as a sacred herb, employing it in ceremonies for its protective qualities and its association with healing. European folklore also attributes it with magical properties, such as bringing love or warding off evil. Its role varies widely, but across these traditions, Yarrow commonly symbolizes protection, healing, and divination.

Are there any variations in Yarrow’s potency based on its geographic origin?

Yarrow’s potency can differ based on its geographic origin due to variations in climate, soil composition, and growing conditions. Different regions yield yarrow with varying concentrations of active compounds like flavonoids and sesquiterpene lactones. Generally, yarrows from diverse climates might possess different therapeutic strengths, impacting their effectiveness in herbal remedies.

Does Yarrow have a known effect on specific organs or body systems?

Yarrow exhibits an affinity for various body systems, primarily influencing the digestive, circulatory, and immune systems. Its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and astringent properties make it valuable in supporting digestion, promoting cardiovascular health, and enhancing the immune response. Some traditions also advocate its use for menstrual issues due to its potential hormonal effects.

Are there any known interactions of Yarrow with commonly prescribed medications?

Yarrow can interact with certain medications. It may enhance the effects of blood-thinning medications due to its natural anticoagulant properties, potentially increasing the risk of bleeding. Additionally, it might interfere with blood pressure medications or sedatives, necessitating caution when using yarrow concurrently with these drugs.

What are the potential benefits and risks of long-term or chronic use of Yarrow?

Long-term or chronic use of yarrow can offer benefits like immune support, improved digestion, and potential cardiovascular benefits. However, prolonged use may pose risks such as skin sensitivities or allergic reactions in some individuals. Excessive consumption can lead to digestive discomfort or potentially impact blood pressure regulation. Consulting a healthcare professional before prolonged usage is advisable to mitigate potential risks.

Is it advisable to cycle on and off Yarrow to prevent tolerance or dependence?

While Yarrow isn’t associated with the same level of tolerance or dependence as some other substances, cycling its use can be a good practice. Consistent, prolonged use might diminish its effectiveness over time for some individuals. A cycle approach—using it for a few weeks and then taking a break—can help maintain its efficacy. However, individual responses can vary, so monitoring personal reactions is key.

Are there any precautions regarding driving or operating machinery while using Yarrow?

As with any herb or medication, it’s essential to be aware of personal reactions to Yarrow. While there aren’t widespread reports of Yarrow specifically causing drowsiness or impaired motor skills, some individuals might experience dizziness or drowsiness. Caution should be exercised, especially when trying Yarrow for the first time or when using higher doses, before engaging in activities that require full attention, like driving or operating machinery.

No strict dietary restrictions are linked to Yarrow. However, if using it for specific health concerns or alongside other medications, consulting a healthcare professional could be wise. Yarrow might interact with certain medications or exacerbate certain conditions, so tailoring its use to individual needs is prudent. As for lifestyle changes, maintaining a balanced, healthy lifestyle can complement the potential benefits of Yarrow.

Does Yarrow have any specific recommendations for addressing common side effects?

Some people might experience mild side effects like skin irritation or digestive discomfort. Ensuring proper dilution for topical use and starting with lower doses when ingesting can mitigate these issues. For skin irritation, diluting Yarrow oil or using it in combination with carrier oils can help. For digestive discomfort, reducing the dosage or taking Yarrow with food might alleviate symptoms.

Are there any known variations or subspecies of Yarrow with different properties?

Yarrow encompasses various species and cultivars, each with slightly different properties. For instance, Achillea millefolium, the most common species, has several cultivars with variations in flower color and potential medicinal properties. While the fundamental benefits might remain consistent, subtle differences in chemical composition among variations might yield slightly altered effects or potency. Researching specific types or consulting an herbalist can help choose the most suitable variation for desired outcomes.

Does Yarrow have any documented cases of misuse or abuse?

Yarrow, though generally safe, has instances of misuse or abuse. Some reports suggest excessive use leads to skin allergies or digestive issues. Prolonged intake can occasionally result in photosensitivity, especially with topical applications. Yet, such cases are relatively rare and often linked to excessive consumption.

Is Yarrow regulated or approved for medicinal use in the United States?

In the United States, Yarrow isn’t extensively regulated by the FDA for medicinal use. It falls under the category of dietary supplements, lacking the rigorous approval process required for pharmaceutical drugs. However, its traditional use in herbal medicine acknowledges its therapeutic potential.

Are there any known interactions of Yarrow when combined with other medicinal herbs?

Yarrow may interact with other herbs or medications, primarily due to its potential to increase bleeding risk. Combining it with anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs might amplify this effect, potentially leading to complications. Caution is advised when using it alongside such medications to avoid adverse interactions.

How does Yarrow’s preparation or dosage change for acute versus chronic conditions?

The preparation and dosage of Yarrow can vary based on the condition. For acute issues like wounds or fevers, topical applications or tinctures in smaller doses are common. In chronic conditions like digestive troubles or menstrual irregularities, it’s often taken orally in moderate amounts over longer periods.

Find the Best Yarrow Products

Thousands of customer reviews are available to help you make the right choice. Embrace the power of nature!

Are there any known withdrawal symptoms when discontinuing the use of Yarrow?

As of current knowledge, no documented withdrawal symptoms are associated with discontinuing Yarrow use. Its non-addictive nature suggests a lack of withdrawal effects. However, abrupt cessation after prolonged heavy use might lead to temporary discomfort or reoccurrence of symptoms previously alleviated by Yarrow, but this isn’t widely reported or confirmed.

What are the best supplement brands of Yarrow?

Several reputable brands are known for their commitment to quality, sourcing organic ingredients, and adhering to stringent manufacturing standards. Brands like Gaia Herbs, Nature’s Way, and Solaray are often recognized for their high-quality Yarrow supplements, ensuring potency and purity through their production processes. Always advisable before purchasing any supplement, it’s crucial to review product information, including the sourcing of ingredients, certifications for purity, and any third-party testing conducted to validate potency and quality.

Article References & Sources

At AncientHerbsWisdom, our content relies on reputable sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to substantiate the information presented in our articles. Our primary objective is to ensure that our content is thoroughly fact-checked, maintaining a commitment to accuracy, reliability, and trustworthiness.

  1. Saeidnia, S., Gohari, A., Mokhber-Dezfuli, N., & Kiuchi, F. (2011). A review on phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea. DARU : Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 19(3), 173-186. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3232110/  
  2. Ali SI, Gopalakrishnan B, Venkatesalu V. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties ofAchillea millefoliumL.: A Review. Phytotherapy Research. 2017;31(8):1140-1161. doi:10.1002/ptr.5840
  3. Malhi GS, Bell E, Outhred T, Berk M. Lithium therapy and its interactions. Aust Prescr. 2020;43(3):91-93. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2020.024
  4. Pazyar N, Yaghoobi R, Rafiee E, Mehrabian A, Feily A. Skin Wound Healing and Phytomedicine: A Review. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology. 2014;27(6):303-310. doi:10.1159/000357477
  5. Becker LC, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, et al. Safety Assessment of Achillea millefolium as Used in Cosmetics. International Journal of Toxicology. 2016;35(3_suppl):5S15S. doi:10.1177/1091581816677717
  6. Benedek, B., & Kopp, B. (2007). Achillea millefolium L. s.l. revisited: recent findings confirm the traditional use. Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift (1946), 157(13-14), 312–314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10354-007-0431-9
  7. Dosoky NS, Setzer WN. Maternal Reproductive Toxicity of Some Essential Oils and Their Constituents. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021;22(5):2380. doi:10.3390/ijms22052380
  8. Radusiene, Jolita & Gudaityte, Odeta. (2005). Distribution of proazulenes in Achillea millefolium s.l. wild populations in relation to phytosociological dependence and morphological characters. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization. 3. 136 – 143. 10.1079/PGR200568. 
  9. Tadić V, Arsić I, Zvezdanović J, Zugić A, Cvetković D, Pavkov S. The estimation of the traditionally used yarrow ( Achillea millefolium L. Asteraceae) oil extracts with anti-inflamatory potential in topical application. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2017;199:138-148. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2017.02.002
  10. McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A (eds). American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1997, 3.
  11. Okkay U, Ferah Okkay I, Aydin IC, et al. Effects of Achillea millefolium on cisplatin induced ocular toxicity: an experimental study. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology. 2021;40(3):214-220. doi:10.1080/15569527.2021.1919137
  12. Hajhashemi M, Ghanbari Z, Movahedi M, Rafieian M, Keivani A, Haghollahi F. The effect of Achillea millefolium and Hypericum perforatum ointments on episiotomy wound healing in primiparous women. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine: The Official Journal of the Europen NJ an Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians. 2018;31(1):63-69. doi:10.1080/14767058.2016.1275549
  13. Salahipour MH, Hasanzadeh Sh, Malekinejad H. Ameliorative effects of Achillea millefolium inflorescences alcoholic extract against nicotine-induced reproductive failure in rat. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. 2017;69(7):504-516. doi:10.1016/j.etp.2017.04.012
  14. McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A (eds). American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1997, 3.
  15. Firouzabadi M, Pourramezani N, Balvardi M. Comparing the Effects of Yarrow, Honey, and Breast Milk for Healing Nipple Fissure. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research. 2020;25(4):282-285. doi:10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_133_19
  16. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al. (eds). The Complete Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, 233-4.
  17. Khan A, Akram M, thiruvengadem M, et al. Anti-anxiety Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. 2022; 23 (8): 1041-1060. Doi: 10.2174/1389201022666210122125131
  18. Jenabi E, Fereidoony B. Effect of Achillea Millefolium on Relief of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. 2015;28(5):402-404. doi:10.1016/j.jpag.2014.12.008
  19. Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1985, 10-1.
  20. Baretta IP, Felizardo RA, Bimbato VF, et al. Anxiolytic-like effects of acute and chronic treatment with Achillea millefolium L. extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012;140(1):46-54. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.11.047
  21. Ayoobi F, Moghadam-Ahmadi A, Amiri H, et al. Achillea millefolium is beneficial as an add-on therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 2019;52:89-97. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2018.06.017
  22. Moradi M, Rafieian-Koupaei M, Imani-Rastabi R, et al. Antispasmodic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium l.) extract in the isolated ileum of rat. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2013;10(6):499. doi:10.4314/ajtcam.v10i6.19
  23. Tewari JP, Srivastava MC, Bajpai JL. Pharmacologic studies of Achillea millefolium Linn. Indian J Med Sci 1994;28:331-6.
  24. Dogan NO, Cevik Y, Pamukcu Gunaydin G. An Unexpected Anticholinergic Effect due to Yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Journal of Academic Emergency Medicine Case Reports. 2013;4(3):89-91. doi:10.5505/jaemcr.2013.55477
  25. Kazemian A, Toghiani A, Shafiei K, et al. Evaluating the efficacy of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 2017;22:120. doi:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_905_16
  26. Muller-Jakic B, Breu W, Probstle A, et al. In vitro inhibition of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase by alkamides from Echinacea and Achillea species. Planta Med 1994;60:37-40.
  27. Grigore A, Colceru-Mihul S, Bazdoaca C, Yuksel R, Ionita C, Glava L. Antimicrobial Activity of an Achillea millefolium L. Proceedings. 2020;57(1):34. doi:10.3390/proceedings2020057034
  28. Zitterl-Eglseer K, Jurenitsch J, Korhammer S, et al. Sesquiterpene lactones of Achillea setacea with antiphlogistic activity. Planta Med 1991;57:444-6.
  29. de Sousa DP, de Almeida Soares Hocayen P, Andrade LN, Andreatini R. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2015;20(10):18620-18660. doi:10.3390/molecules201018620
  30. de Souza P, Crestani S, da Silva R de CV, et al. Involvement of bradykinin and prostaglandins in the diuretic effects of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013;149(1):157-161. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.015
  31. Patel S, Sharma V, Chauhan NS, Thakur M, Dixit VK. Hair growth: focus on herbal therapeutic agent. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2015;12(1):21-42. doi:10.2174/1570163812666150610115055
  32. Tilwani K, Patel A, Parikh H, Thakker DJ, Dave G. Investigation on anti-Corona viral potential of Yarrow tea. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. Published online May 31, 2022:1-13. doi:10.1080/07391102.2022.2082532
  33. Castleman M. The Healing Herbs. New York, Bantam Books, 1991, 550-4.
  34. [L M, M G de C, A QF, et al. Yarrow Supercritical Extract Ameliorates the Metabolic Stress in a Model of Obesity Induced by High-Fat Diet. Nutrients. 2019;12(1). doi:10.3390/nu12010072
  35. Mouhid L, Gómez de Cedrón M, García-Carrascosa E, Reglero G, Fornari T, Ramírez de Molina A. Yarrow supercritical extract exerts antitumoral properties by targeting lipid metabolism in pancreatic cancer. Sukocheva OA, ed. PLOS ONE. 2019;14(3):e0214294. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0214294
  36. Mohammadhosseini M, Sarker SD, Akbarzadeh A. Chemical composition of the essential oils and extracts of Achillea species and their biological activities: A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2017 Mar 6;199:257-315. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2017.02.010.
  37. Nemeth E, Bernath J. Biological Activities of Yarrow Species (Achillea spp.). Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2008;14(29):3151-3167. doi:10.2174/138161208786404281
  38. Calapai G, Miroddi M, Minciullo PL, Caputi AP, Gangemi S, Schmidt RJ. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products – part 1:Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa. Contact Dermatitis. 2014;71(1):1-12. doi:10.1111/cod.12222
  39. Pelkonen O, Abass K, Wiesner J. Thujone and thujone-containing herbal medicinal and botanical products: Toxicological assessment. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2013;65(1):100-107. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.11.002] 
  40. Wölfle U, Seelinger G, Schempp C. Topical Application of St. Johnʼs Wort (Hypericum perforatum). Planta Medica. 2013;80(02/03):109-120. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1351019
  41. Miller FM, Chow LM. Alkaloids of Achillea millefolium L. I. Isolation and Characterization of Achilleine1,2. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1954;76(5):1353-1354. doi:10.1021/ja01634a048

Valuable Resources